INTRODUCTION to GEOCHEMISTRY (ERTH 2140 / CHEM 2540)
Meeting time: M-Th 10:00-11:50
Place: J-ROWL 3W13
Instructor: E.B. Watson Office: 1C31 J-ROWL
office hours: by appointment
TA: Betsey Pettitt
Office: 2W14 J-ROWL
office hrs: W 3:00-4:00*
*Alternate times can be arranged by appointment if you are unable to attend regular office hours. 24 hours notice will be appreciated.
General nature of the course and expected outcomes
This course is about the chemical systems and processes of the planet we live on. It covers a diversity of topics in both chemistry and geology, with two specific objectives: 1) to help students develop skills in chemistry that are useful in the study of earth systems; and 2) to provide students with insight into the origins of -- and the interactions among -- the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and rocks. The overarching goal of the course is to shed light on the Earth as a collection of complex, interacting chemical systems -- systems that provide ample opportunities to apply both basic and advanced principles of chemistry. Students who complete the course in good standing will appreciate the complexity, breadth and scales of Earth-systems chemistry and have a working knowledge of relevant kinetic and equilibrium phenomena. They will also emerge with tools and insights that will be essential to informed decision-making on environment and energy issues.
It will be helpful to have taken some introductory-level geoscience (e.g., Geology I and/or II), but (as many of you know) these have not been enforced as formal prerequisites. Students lacking a background in geoscience may find it helpful to do additional reading. Students who have not taken introductory college-level chemistry might find the course a struggle, and should consult with the instructor before the term gets underway. Some prior knowledge of physical chemistry will be helpful, but much of this will be taught as we go. Basic knowledge of calculus will be assumed.
Use of class time
The 2-hour class periods (MTh 10:00-11:50) will be used for formal introduction of material in lecture format (generally not for the full 110 minutes!), and also for supplementary discussion, in-class exercises, and introduction of homework assignments. Attendance is encouraged simply because we will not follow the text page by page (or even chapter by chapter), and you will be at a disadvantage if you have not participated -- or at least listened -- in class.
The text is Essentials of Geochemistry (2nd edition), by Prof. John V. Walther. Depending on your study habits, you will be able to do well in the course without purchasing the text, because heavy reliance is placed on the lecture handouts provided by Prof. Watson. However, the handouts are not "stand-alone" resources, so if you plan on skipping class a lot, the text will help you fill in gaps that are addressed orally in class but not detailed in the handouts. Essentials of Geochemistry is available at the RPI bookstore or (perhaps more cheaply secondhand) at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, etc. It is an excellent introductory text that covers most of the field of geochemistry at an appropriate level. I strongly recommend this book for students who think their future career paths might involve work in geochemistry or a related field. The treatment of aquatic (aqueous) geochemistry is especially good because this is Prof. Walther's own area of expertise. Prof. Rogers uses the same text in Aqueous Geochemistry (ERTH 4690)..
There will be three exams during the term, on FEBRUARY 10, MARCH 19 and APRIL 27 (see calendar below). The exams will cover material presented mainly during the preceding 8 or 9 class periods. One exam score will be "de-valued" as described under "grading" below; the third exam -- although not a cumulative final -- will include general questions (totaling ~20% of the exam) drawn from material covered during the entire term,. A review session will be held before each exam.
There will be 5 or 6 homework assignments over the course of the semester, handed out at ~2 week intervals beginning in the second week of class. Most of these are expected to require no more than 2-3 hours (often less) for completion. Assignments will be designed as "intuition-builders" or to illustrate concepts and principles, not so much as crank-and-grind busywork. Late homework assignments will be deducted 10% of the grade for each day they are late and will not be accepted later than 7 days after the due date.
Exam scores will comprise 75% of the course grade. The lowest exam score will be weighted 15%, the others 30%. The homework will count 25% of the course grade.
Statement regarding Academic Integrity
Good student-teacher relationships are built on trust. Students should have confidence that we have made appropriate decisions about the structure and content of this course, and that we will make a strong effort to accommodate the varying needs of a diverse group of students. Teachers, in turn, must have confidence that the assignments and exams you turn in represent your own work.
The Rensselaer Handbook defines various forms of Academic Dishonesty and procedures for responding to them. All forms are violations of the trust between students and teachers. Students should familiarize themselves with the appropriate portion of the Rensselaer Handbook and note that the penalties for plagiarism and other forms of cheating can be quite harsh.Classroom etiquette
Use of smart phones, tablets and laptops in the classroom will be frowned upon. A 5- to 10-minute texting break will be allowed during each class period.
Spring 2020 SYLLABUS
January 13: Course introduction
16: Radiometric dating
23: Isotopes in Geochemistry
27: Cosmic abundances and origin of the nuclides
30: Elemental abundances in the Earth
February 3: Differentiation of the Earth: crust, mantle and core
6: Differentiation of the Earth: atmosphere and oceans
10: EXAM 1
13: Equilibrium fractionation of elements and isotopes
18: Equilibrium fractionation 2
20: Kinetic fractionation of elements and isotopes
24: Carbon cycle, part 1
27: Carbon cycle, part 2
March 2: Diffusion 1
5: Diffusion 2
16: Thermodynamics: introduction/review
19: EXAM 2
23: Thermodynamics & phase diagrams 1
26: Thermodynamics & phase diagrams 2
30: Thermodynamics & phase diagrams 3
April 2: Thermodynamics & phase diagrams 4
6: Eh-pH diagrams
9: Introduction to Aqueous geochemistry
13: Nanogeochemistry; Surfaces
16: Aspects of environmental geochemistry
23: Course review
27: EXAM 3
Class meeting calendar
Handouts for lectures
To get the class handouts for the date you want, click on the appropriate button for a PDF file you can print or download (files are password-protected)...
Course Intro (1/13) Radioisotopes 1 (1/16) Radioisotopes 2 (1/23) Radioisotopes 3 (1/27) element abundances (1/23)
Earth abundances (1/27) differentiation1 (1/30) differentiation2 (2/3) fractionation 1 (2/20) fractionation 2 (2/24)
Carbon Cycle 1 (Feb 28 - Mar 2) Carbon Cycle 2 (Mar 2 - Mar 5) Thermo 1 (~April 6) Thermo 2 (~April 13)
Exercises, homework, etc.
Homework 1 (due 1/31) Homework 2 (due 2/24) old exam 1 old exam 2 Homework 3 (due 4/13)
solids only eutectic solution loop azeotrope
Reading to accompany and augment lectures (will be updated as the semester progresses; don't hesitate to ask for guidance on further background reading at any point in the course)
Below are suggestions for reading to supplement the material discussed in class. Note that neither text does covers the topics in the same order we will!
Nature and Differentiation of the Earth: Walther, chapter 2
Radioactive Decay and Age Dating: Walther, chapter 10, pp. 371-387, 399-404
Nucleosynthesis (origin of the elements): Elements article by Shatz (click )