Biographical sketch of  Dr. Toh-Ming Lu
Ray Palmer Baker Distinguished Professor of Physics

Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, NY 12180-3590
 Tel: 518/276-2979
Fax: 518/276-6680
Email: lut@rpi.edu

Education

BS 

National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (Physics, 1968)

MS 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Physics, 1971)

PhD 

University of Wisconsin, Madison (Physics, 1976)

Professional Career

1999-2005 

Director, SRC Center for Advanced Interconnect Science and Technology (13 universities) 

1997-2016 

Associate Director, Center for Integrated Electronics and Electronics Manufacturing (CIEEM), Rensselaer

1996-1999 

Associate Director, SRC Center for Advanced Interconnect Science and Technology, a national center including 8 universities

1992-1997 

Chairman, Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

1982-present 

Faculty, Department of Physics, Assistant Professor: '82-'86, Associate Professor: '86-'89, Full Professor: '89-), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

1979-1982 

Research Associate, Materials Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison

1979-1980 

Guest Scientist, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC

1977-1978 

Physics and Math Teacher, Catholic High School, Sibu Malaysia

Research Fields and Funding

Thin film morphological evolution and ordering; 3D integrated nano-structure formation; diffraction from imperfect surfaces, overlayers, dynamic growth fronts; growth and characterization of metal, ceramic, and polymeric thin films for energy, microelectronics, photonics, and nanoelectronics applications. Since '82, well funded research by NSF, DARPA, ARO, AFOSR, NIH, IBM, DEC, Kodak, Martin-Marietta, GE, Intel, Sheldahl, and AT&T.

 

Awards and Honors

Fellow of Materials Research Society (2008)

Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (2007)
          Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) Faculty Leadership Award (2005)

            Materials Research Society Medal Award (2004)

            Williams Wiley Distinguished Faculty Award (2002)

Fellow of American Vacuum Society (1995).

Fellow of the American Physical Society (1994).

Rensselaer Center for Integrated Electronics Faculty Award (1993).

Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) Invention Award (1988).

Rensselaer Early Career Award (1986).


Publications and Invited Talks

Author and co-authored 9 books, edited two books, and five book chapters

Over 550 technical papers; 12 patents

Over 200 invited lectures at national, international conferences, and academic and industrial institutions, including APS, MRS, AIME, Gordon, ACS.


Selective Professional Activities

Member of American Physical Society, American Vacuum Society, and Materials Research Society. Committee member for "International Workshop on Ionized Cluster Beam Technology", Tokyo ('86). Panelist and Section Chair, "International Workshop on Self-Ion Assisted Deposition", Colorado Spring ('91). Section Chair, AVS ('85), MRS ('91, '94). Local Committee member and Section Chair, PEC ('93). Panelist/Specialist for World Bank to evaluate performance of the World Bank loan to China ('88). DOE Panel Review Member, Materials Division ('93). United Nation Visiting Scholar (Microelectronics) to China (1994). Co-organizer of '95 and '98 MRS Symposiums on Low Dielectric Constant Thin Films; co-organizer of ’04 MRS Symposium on Interconnect. Panelist/Steering Committee/Session Chair at the 1996 Low Dielectric Constant Materials Workshop sponsored by SEMATECH and Steering Committee/Session Chair of the same Workshop in 1999. NSF SBIR Review Panelist (1997). External Assessor for Hong Kong Research Grants Council (1993-). Editorial Board member of Chemistry and Physics of Materials, 1995-. SRC University Advisory Board, 1998-. International Interconnect Technology Conference organizing committee, 2000-. Organizer of the SRC Workshop on "Fundamental limits on metallization". Co-organizer of the Symposium on Si Microelectronics in the 2005 International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT)

 

PhD Student Graduated

25 out of the 46 former PhD students won best thesis/paper awards. Former students hired by major semiconductor related companies such as IBM, Intel, AMD, Motolora, MA/COM, Analog, Eaton, and GE, Global Foundries, and Government laboratories. Educated numerous undergraduate students in our Undergraduate Research Participation Program over the two decades.

 

Departmental Development

Research development: hired as the first Assistant Professor in the Department (1982) to conduct interdisciplinary research and teaching. His success had encouraged subsequent hiring of more faculty working in the interdisciplinary area. After a decade of development, the applied physics program has been ranked No. 9 in the nation since 1993 by the Gourman Graduate Report.

Teaching development: (As Chair of the Department (1992-1997))

1.      established an undergraduate Applied Physics degree program

2.      created Resnick Center for Undergraduate Education;

3.      created Hill B. Huntington computing facility for graduate research;

4.      eliminated the traditional large lecture format and implemented Studio Physics scheme for Introductory Physics courses (integration of lecture, recitation, and laboratory in one classroom). The Department became the first in a research oriented university to totally eliminated the traditional large lecture format and adopted the smaller classes, multimedia environment to deliver Introductory Physics courses. The development is instrumental for Rensselaer to win the 1995 Theodore M. Hesburgh Award for Innovation in Undergraduate Education, 1995 Boeing Outstanding Educator Award , and 1996 Pew Award for Leadership and Renewal Undergraduate Education.

Center Activities
Lu was the Director (1999-2005) of the SRC sponsored Center for Advanced Interconnect Science and Technology (CAIST). CAIST involves 13 Universities, 25 faculty, and more than 40 graduate students engaged in a nation-wide interdisciplinary research in ultra-fast computer chip. Lu was also one of the earlier members of the Center for Integrated Electronics( (CIE) founded in 1982 at Rensselar. Assumed the position as the Associate Director for CIE in 1997. Involved in the strategic planning/execution of CIEEM’s (a ~$9M operation at the present time) direction/business.

 

Research Accomplishments
(Ref. Numbers are referred to the publication list following this section.)

A. Growth front morphology study (with G.-C. Wang)

The group has published a series of seminal papers on the theoretical predictions and the measurements of morphological evolution during film growth and etching. They have developed a class of theoretical models and backed by experimental verification, based on a re-emission mechanism to describe commonly occurred growth/etch front roughening phenomena induced by deposition or etching noise during processing [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4882 (1999); Phys. Rev. B. 61, 3012 (2000); Phys. Rev. B. 62, 2118 (2000)]. This generic class of theories can be applied to many diverse processes such as vacuum evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, sputter deposition, and plasma etching and ion beam etching. The team also developed a novel volume diffusion mechanism to describe the morphology evolution during the growth of their polymeric films by physical vapor deposition-polymerization [(Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3229 (2000)].

More recent interest focuses on a particularly class of deposition technique called the oblique angle deposition. This technique allows one to produce 3D nanostructures that cannot be obtained by other lithographic techniques. Many electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of these nanostructures are actively being studied.

B. Diffraction Theory Development

Diffraction from stepped surfaces (1979-1981): As a Research Associate in Wisconsin-Madison (under Professor Max Lagally): Developed a theory of diffraction from surfaces with a random distribution of steps (Ref. 17). In particular the use of the "boundary structure factor" to quantify the diffraction beam shape is still frequently used by researchers to quantify surface step distribution.

Intensity oscillations (1982-present): Proposed a simple explanation of the well-known intensity oscillation in molecular beam epitaxy using a two-dimensional, two-level lattice gas model (Ref. 25) (1984). Developed a more sophisticated one-dimensional theory (also, independently by P. Cohen's group at Minnesota) of diffraction from surfaces with two-level, randomly distributed steps, the so-called (1x1) surface islands, to quantify the intensity oscillation for layer-by-layer epitaxial growth systems (Refs. 26, 30) (1984-1985). A more realistic, two-dimensional theory was constructed in 1992 for two-level, randomly distributed (1x1) islands (Ref. 146). A quantitative theory to describe the decaying of the intensity oscillation as a result of roughening of the growth front was also constructed in 1995 (Ref. 186).

Diffraction from growth/etch front kinetic roughening (1992): A diffraction theory with an analytical form was developed for a time-dependent, far-from-equilibrium growth/etch front that is undergoing a kinetic roughening transition which obeys a dynamic scaling behavior (Ref. 160). The existence of a "time-invariant structure factor" was predicted (Ref. 148). This laid the foundation for experimental diffraction studies of this exciting and new research area.

Diffraction from unstable growth fronts (1997): An analytical solution was obtained for the diffraction from a growth front that is not stable and that exhibits a "mounds" structure as a result of a step diffusion barrier (Schwoebel barrier) recently observed in molecular beam epitaxy (Ref. 217). Many of the predictions have not been observed in experiments yet. This theory, together with the results obtained for kinetic roughening will allow experimentalists to probe and gain insights into the dynamics of film growth, a subject of great interest both from the fundamental and practical point of views.

C. Experimental Surface and Overlayer Ordering (Collaboration With Professor G.-C. Wang)

Clean surface and overlayer ordering (in the 80's): a) physical realization of a two-dimensional Ising-like critical phenomenon in an overlayer (O/W(112)) (Ref. 38); b) measurement of an infinite-order, surface roughening transition in a flat metal surface (Pb(110)) (Ref. 95), including the observation of a critical line and a pre-roughening phenomenon in this transition (Ref. 146) ; and c) the observation of a vacancy induced surface disordering in Pb(100) before surface melting (Ref. 132).

Overlayer dynamic ordering (in the early 80s to present): a) physical realization of the Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn curvature driven growth mechanism during the two-dimensional domain growth of an overlayer (Ref. 22) (1983); b) physical realization of the random field Ising effect in the two-dimensional domain growth of an overlayer (Ref. 68) (1988); c) experimental study of growth front dynamics far from equilibrium: the observation of a time-invariant structure factor (predicted earlier) from an epitaxial growth front (Ref. 150) (1992); and d) dynamic scaling of a different kind (unstable growth) using the high-resolution low-energy electron diffraction technique was also discovered: epitaxial growth of Si/Si (Ref. 173) (1994), sputtering of Si (Ref. 172) (1994), amorphous growth of Si/Si (Ref. 194) (1996).

Light scattering (1995-present): A major advancement has been made in the light scattering techniques for surface roughness and dynamic growth front study: an improvement of four orders of magnitude in temporal resolution (Ref. 195) and two orders of magnitude in spatial resolution (Ref. 178). The time resolution has been improved from a few minutes/profile measurement to a few milliseconds/profile time scale and at the same time the dynamic range of interface width has been improved two orders of magnitude. This development represents a major breakthrough in using light scattering technique for real-time growth/etch front study (Ref. 196) (1996).

D. Self-Ion Assisted Deposition Techniques

Ionized cluster beam deposition (early to mid 80's): To provide a fundamental understanding of on the mechanism of metal and semiconductor cluster formation in ionized cluster bean deposition (Ref. 35). Critical size was determined and the long standing controversy on the metal and semiconductor cluster formation in ionized cluster beam deposition was resolved (Ref. 72). A novel multistate condensation strategy was developed to study in detail the dynamics of cluster formation in a supersonic expansion from a crucible and cluster size distribution was determined (Ref. 47).

Partially ionized beam (PIB) deposition (mid 80's to present): Invention and creative design of a class self-ion assisted deposition sources for self-ion assisted deposition techniques, called the partially ionized beam deposition (Ref. 66) (1988), to grow very unusual metal and insulator thin films and interfaces at low substrate temperatures. Using this technique, an ideal single crystal Al film which was incommensurate to the substrate was deposited on a Si(111) surface under a conventional vacuum condition at room temperature (Ref. 84). Other interesting examples using the PIB deposition techniques are: 1) room temperature epitaxy of metal on GaAs substrates in a conventional vacuum condition (Ref. 201); 2) room temperature deposition of bulk-like resistivity metal films (Ref. 98); 3) growth of perfectly oriented polycrystalline metal films with unusually tight texture on amorphous substrate (Ref. 86); 4) order of magnitude improvement of electromagnetic lifetime of PIB deposited films (Ref. 88); 5) dramatic improvement of adhesion of metal films on polymer substrates (Ref. 197); 6) the ability to fill high aspect ratio vias/trenches with metal (Ref. 62); and 7) room temperature coating of dense and transparent oxides and ceramic films with extremely low dc leakage current (Ref. 130).

PIB mechanism: A fundamental mechanism for PIB film growth has been proposed to explain the observed film growth at low substrate temperature. A model involving the generation of a high temperature, high mobility layer near the region of ion impact at the growth front has been successfully developed to account much of the observed unusual growth behavior of the PIB deposition (Ref. 105, and theses by P. Bai and B. Gittleman).

E. Vapor Deposition of Novel Polymeric Films

Development of novel vapor deposition techniques for polymers and polymer composites (1990-present): Vapor deposition techniqueswere developed to deposit polymeric films with very low dielectric constant and films with very high electro-optics coefficient. Examples are the deposition of Parylene-F films using a monomer liquid, C 8 F10 (Ref. 209); and the deposition of novel polynathalene films (with Professor J. Moore) using a new precursor (Ref. 189). In contrast to the conventional spin-on polymers, these films are polymerized at very low substrate temperatures and are coated in a vacuum condition where no moisture is trapped. Co-polymerized thin films (Ref. 199) and polymer-chromophore composite films (Ref. 182) with very high electro-optic coefficient were created using the vapor deposition techniques.

 

Publications

A.   Books and Book Chapters

 

  1. Book:- “Dielectric breakdown in gigascale electronics—time dependent failure mechanisms”, Juan Pablo Borja, Toh-Ming Lu, and Joel Plawsky, Springer, 2016.
  2. Book:- “RHEED Transmission Mode and Pole Figures”, Gwo-Ching Wang and Toh-Ming Lu, Springer, New York, 2014.
  3. Book:-“Metal dielectric interfaces in gigascale electronics—thermal and electrical stability”, Ming He and Toh-Ming Lu, Springer, New York, 2012.
  4. Book:-“Evolution of thin film morphology—modeling and simulations”, M. Pelliccione and T.-M. Lu, Springer, New York (2008).
  5. Book- “Chemical vapor deposition polymerization—the growth and properties of Parylene thin films”, J. Fortin and T.-M. Lu, Kluwer Academic Publishers (2004).
  6. Book- "Puled and Puled bias sputter deposition---principles and applications", E. Barnat and T.-M. Lu, Kluwer (2003).
  7. Book- "Characterization of amorphous and crystalline rough surfaces-Principles and applications", Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Academic Press (Sept. 2000).
  8. Book- "Diffraction from Rough Surfaces and Dynamic Growth Fronts", H.-N. Yang, G.-Wang, and T.-M. Lu. World Scientific, Singapore (1993).
  9. Book- "Turmoil and opportunities in higher education- the road of an academic department at the dawn of the 21st Century", Amazon.com, Jan. 2000.
  10. Book- "Low Dielectric Constant Materials:-Synthesis and Applications in Microelectronics", Edited by T.-M. Lu, S. Murarka, T.S. Kuan, and C. Ting, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 381 (1995).
  11. Book- "Low Dielectric Constant Materials IV", Edited by C. Chiang, P. Ho, T.-M. Lu, and J. Wetzel, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 511 (1998).
  12. Book- “Materials, Technology and Reliability for Advanced Interconnects and Low-k Dielectrics”, Edited by R.J. Carter, C.S. Hau-Riege, G.M. Kloster, T.-M. Lu, and S.E. Schulz, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 812 (2004).
  13. Book Chapter-"Chemisorption: Island Formation and Adatom Interactions", M.G. Lagally, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, in Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces, Ed. P. Vanselow, Vol. II, 153-180, CRC Press (1979).
  14. Book Chapter-"Surface Structures and Order-Disorder Phase Transitions", The Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis, P.D. Woodruff, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Ed. D.A. King and P.D. Woodruff, Elsevier North Holland, Amsterdam (1983).
  15. Book Chapter: "Metallization Techniques", D. Skelly, T.-M. Lu, and D.W. Woodruff, VLSI Electrons Vol. 15, Edited by N.G. Enispruch, S.S. Cohen and G.S. Gildenblat, Academic Press, Orlando, FL (1987) p. 101.
  16. Book Chapter: “Silicon nanostructured films grown on templated surfaces by oblique angle deposition Technique”, Dexian Ye  and Toh-Ming Lu, book chapter in “Thin film growth physics, materials science and applications”, edited by Zexian Cao,Woodhead Publishing, Oxford, 2011.
  17. Book Chapter: "Nano-engineered Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries," Krishnan, Rahul; Mukherjee, Rahul; Lu, Toh-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil in: Nanotechnology for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Eds: Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser; E Davidson, Isobel, Springer, New York (2013), p. 43-66. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-4605-7_3.

B. Journal Articles

  1. "Island-Dissolution Phase Transition in a Chemisorbed Layer", T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and M.G. Lagally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 411 (1977).
  2. "Phase Transitions in the Chemisorbed Layer W(110)p(2x1)-O as a Function of Coverage I. Experimental", G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu and M.G. Lagally, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 479 (1978).
  3. "Island Formation and Condensation of a Chemisorbed Overlayer", T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and M.G. Lagally, Surf. Sci. 92, 133 (1980).
  4. "Ising Models for Order-Disorder Transitions in an Adsorbed Layers",T.-M.Lu, Surf. Sci. 93, L111 (1980).
  5. "Surface Defects and Thermodynamics of Chemisorbed Layers", M.G. Lagally, T.-M. Lu and D.G. Welkie, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 223 (1980).
  6. "Quantitative Analysis of Step Densities Using a Two-Dimensional Random Probability Model", S.R. Anderson, T.-M. Lu, M.G. Lagally and G.-C. Wang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 207 (1980).
  7. "The Resolving Power of a LEED Diffractometer and the Analysis of Surface Imperfections", T.-M. Lu and M.G. Lagally, Surf. Sci. 99 , 695 (1980).
  8. "Adsorbed Overlayer Critical Phenomena by LEED", Ordering in Two Dimensions", T.-M. Lu, Ed. S.K. Sinha, North Holland Publishing Co. (1980).
  9. "Observations of Island Formation and Dissolution in a Chemisorbed Layer by LEED", M.G. Lagally, T.-M. Lu and G.-C. Wang, Ordering in Two Dimensions, Ed. S.K. Sinha, North Holland Publishing Company (1980).
  10. "The Effect of Instrumental Broadening in LEED Intensity-Energy Profiles", T.-M. Lu, M.G. Lagally and G.-C. Wang, Surf. Sci. 104, L229 (1981).
  11. "Reconstructed Domains on a Stepped W(100) Surface", G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Surf. Sci. 107, 139 (1981).
  12. "Quantitative Island Size Determination in the Chemisorbed Layer W(110)p(2x1)-O II. Theory", T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and M.G. Lagally, Surf. Sci. 107 , 494 (1981).
  13. "Fluctuation Phenomena Near an Overlayer Order-Disorder Phase Transition", T.-M. Lu, L.-H. Zhao and M.G. Lagally, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18, 504 (1981).
  14. "The Role of Instrumental Broadening in Surface Structure Determination by Low-Energy Electron Diffraction", T.-M. Lu and M.G. Lagally, Determination of Surface Structures by LEED , Eds. P. Marcus and F. Jona, Plenum, p. 497 (1982).
  15. "LEED Investigation of Extended Defects at the Surface of Ge Films Grown Epitaxially on GaAs (110)", H.M. Clearfield, D.G. Welkie, T.-M. Lu and M.G. Lagally, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 323 (1981).
  16. "Direct Determination of the Size Distribution of Adsorbed-Layer Islands from LEED Beam Intensity-vs-Angle Profiles", T.-M. Lu, L.-H. Zhao and M.G. Lagally, Solid Films and Surfaces, Ed. J.W. Gadzuk, 634-636, North Holland Publishing, Amsterdam (1982).
  17. "Diffraction From Surfaces With a Random Distribution of Steps", T.-M.Lu and M.G. Lagally, Surf. Sci. 120, 47 (1982).
  18. "A New Approach to the Quantitative Determination of Size Distributions in X-Ray Diffraction", L.-H. Zhao, T.-M. Lu and M.G. Lagally, Acta Cryst. A38, 800 (1982).
  19. "Low Energy Electron Diffraction From Overlayer Islands with Positional Correlation", T.-M. Lu, L.-H. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, M.G. Lagally and J. Houston, Surf. Sci. 122, 519 (1982).
  20. "Structure of Reconstructed Domains on a High Density Stepped W(100) Surface", G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Surf. Sci. Lett. 122, L635 (1982).

PAPERS BASED ON WORK DONE WHILE AT RENSSELAER

  1. "Phase Relationships for Adsorbed Layers on Surfaces", M.G. Lagallyand T.-M. Lu, in: Alloy Phase Diagrams, Eds. L.H. Bennett, T.B. Massalski and B.C. Giessen, Materials Research Society, Vol. 19, 313 (1983), North Holland Publisher.
  2. "Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Ordering: Oxygen Chemisorbed on the W(112) Surface", G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50 , 2014 (1983).
  3. "Phase Diagram of Oxygen Chemisorbed on the W(112) Surface", G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 28, 6795 (1983).
  4. "Atomic Correlations of Stepped Surfaces and Interfaces", J.M. Pimbleyand T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 182 (1984).
  5. "A Two-Dimensional Random Growth Model in Layer by Layer Epitaxy", J.M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, Surf. Sci. 139, 360 (1984).
  6. "Atomic Correlations During the First Stages of Epitaxy", J.M. Pimbleyand T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 457 (1984).
  7. "Kinetics of Antiphase Domain Coarsening in an Overlayer", G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 1048 (1984).
  8. "Structural Effects in the Initial Stages of Epitaxy", J.M. Pimbleyand T.-M. Lu, in: Thin Films and Interfaces, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 20, 375 (1984).
  9. "Misoriented Surfaces with Randomly Distributed Steps", M. Prescicci and T.-M. Lu, Surf. Sci. 141, 233 (1984).
  10. "Exact One-Dimensional Pair Correlation Functions of a Monolayer/Substrate System", J.M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 57(4), 1121 (1985).
  11. "More Than One Monolayer Adsorption of Oxygen on the W(112) Surface", G.-C. Wang, J.M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B31, 1950 (1985).
  12. "Nozzle Beam Deposition of SiO2 Films", J. Wong, T.-M. Lu and S. Mehta, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3(1), 453 (1985).
  13. "Rapid Thermal Annealing on Deposited SiO2 Films", J. Wong, T.-M. Lu and S. Cohen, in Energy Beam-Solid Interactions and Thermal Processing Transient Annealing, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 35, 515 (1985).
  14. "Characterization of Surface Defect Structure by Low-Energy Electron Diffraction", J.F. Wendelken, G.-C. Wang, J.M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, in Advanced Photon and Particle Techniques for the Characterization of Defects in Solids, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 41, 172 (1985).
  15. "Condensation of Metal and Semiconductor Vapors During Nozzle Expansion", S.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 541 (1985).
  16. "Diffraction From Incommensurate Domain Walls", P. Fenter and T.-M. Lu, Surf. Sci. 154, 15 (1985).
  17. "Two-Dimensional Correlations in Epitaxial Layers", J.M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 57(10), 4583 (1985).
  18. "Physical Realization of Two-Dimensional Ising Critical Phenomenon: Oxygen Chemisorbed on a W(112) Surface", G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B31, 5918 (1985).
  19. "Diffraction From Surfaces with Interacting Steps", J.M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, Surf. Sci. 159, 169 (1985).
  20. "Characteristics of SiO2 Films Deposited by Ionized Nozzle-Beam Technique", J. Wong, T.-M. Lu, S. Mehta and R. Stumps, in Advanced Applications of Ion Implantation, SPIE Vol. 530, 84 (1985).
  21. "Integral Representation of the Diffracted Intensity from One-Dimensional Stepped Surfaces and Epitaxial Layers", J.M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 58(6), 2184 (1985).
  22. "Short-Range Correlation in Imperfect Surfaces and Overlayers", J. M.Pimbleyand T.-M. Lu, Surface Structures, Ed. M. Van Hove, Plenum Press, p. 361 (1985).
  23. "Distribution of Domain Sizes During Overlayer Growth", J.M. Pimbley, T.-M. Lu and G.-C. Wang, Surf. Sci. 159, L467 (1985).
  24. "Weakly Coupled Two-Dimensional Correlations in Finite-Level Epitaxy and Chemisorption", J.M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 59 (7), 2439 (1986).
  25. "Island Coalescence in a Chemisorbed Overlayer", J.M. Pimbley, T.-M. Lu and G.-C. Wang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4(3), 1357 (1986).
  26. "Non-Activated Metal Cluster Growth During Rapid Expansion", S.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 127, 512 (1986).
  27. "Metal Cluster Size Distribution During Jet Expansion", S.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1122 (1986).
  28. "Formation of Ultra-Small Metal Clusters During Rapid Expansion", T.-M.Luand S.-N. Yang, in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Ionized Cluster Beam Technology, Eds. T. Takagi and I, Yamada, Kyoto University, Japan (1986) p. 33.
  29. "Zero Step Coverage Using Jet Expansion Deposition Technique", R. Ramanarayanan, D. Skelly, T.-M. Lu and J. Wong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4(5), 1180 (1986) .
  30. "Control of Cluster Size in Nozzle Jet Expansion", S.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5(1), 355 (1987).
  31. "Unidirectional Deposition of Aluminum Using Nozzle Jet Beam Technique", R. Ramanarayanan, K. Polasko, D. Skelly, J. Wong, S.-N. Mei and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B5(1), 359 (1987).
  32. "PtSi/n-type Si Schottky Barrier Height Change by H+ Ion Implantation at the Interface", P. Hadizad, A.-S. Yapsir, T.-M. Lu, J.C. Corelli and A. Sugerman, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B19/20, 431 (1987).
  33. Sticking Coefficient of Ar on Small Ar Clusters", S.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, Solid State Communications 61, 351 (1987).
  34. "Al/Si(100) Schottky Barrier Formation Using Nozzle Jet Beam Deposition", J. Wong, S.-N. Mei and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(11), 679 (1987).
  35. "Channeling Study of Structural Effects at Al(111)/Si(111) Interface Formed by Ionized Cluster Beam Deposition", H.-S. Jin, A.-S. Yapsir, T.-M. Lu, W.M. Gibson, I. Yamada and T. Takagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1602 (1987).
  36. "Kinetics of Cluster Formation During Rapid Quenching", S.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, The Physics and Chemistry of Small Clusters, Eds. P. Jena, B.K. Rao and S.N. Khanna, NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series, Plenum Publishing Corporation (1987) p. 705.
  37. 57. "Self-Ions Effects on Al/Si Schottky Barrier Formation Using Nozzle Jet Beam Deposition", J. Wong, S.-N. Mei and T.-M. Lu, in Interfaces, Superlattices and Thin Films, Ed. J.D. Dow, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.Vol. 77 , Pittsburgh, PA (1987) p. 211.
  38. "Ar Cluster Size Distribution During Supersonic Jet Expansion", S.-N.Yangand T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B35, 6944 (1987).
  39. "Effects of H2+ Implantation on Al/Si Interface", A.-S. Yapsir, P. Hadizad, T.-M. Lu, J.C. Corelli, W. Lanford and H. Backhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1530 (1987).
  40. "Ion Cluster Beam Metallized Interconnections for Wafer Scale Integration", R. Selvaraj, S.-N. Yang, T.-M. Lu and J.F. McDonald, Proc. of the VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference, IEEE Electron Devices Society, New York, p.440 (1987).
  41. "Control of Al Orientation on Si(100) Substrate Using a Partially Ionized Beam", C.-H. Choi, R. Ramanarayanan, S.-N. Mei and T.-M. Lu, in Materials Modification and Growth Using Ion Beams, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.Vol. 93, 267 (Pittsburgh) (1987).
  42. "Non-Conformal Al Via Filling and Planarization by Partially Ionized Beam Deposition for Multilevel Interconnection", S.-N. Mei, T.-M. Lu and S. Robert, IEEE Electron Device Letters, EDL 8(10), 506 (1987).
  43. "Impact of Step Edges on W(001) Surface Reconstruction", J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A5, 777 (1987).
  44. "High-Aspect-Ratio Via Filling with Al Using Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", S.-N. Mei, S.-N. Yang, T.-M. Lu and S. Roberts, AIP Conf. Proc. (USA) 167, 299 (1988).
  45. "Epitaxial Growth of Al(111)/Si(111) Films Using Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", C.-H. Choi, R.A. Harper, A.-S. Yapsir and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1992 (1987).
  46. "A High Ionization Efficiency Source for Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", S.-N. Mei and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6, 9 (1988).
  47. "Two-Dimensional First-Order Phase Separation in an Epitaxial Layer", T.-M. Lu and S.-N. Yang, Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction and Reflection Electron Imaging of Surfaces, Eds. P.K. Larsen and P.J. Dobson, NATO ASI Series, Vol. 188, p. 225, Plenum Press, New York (1988).
  48. "Growth Kinetics of a Chemisorbed Overlayer in the Presence of Impurities", J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1053 (1988).
  49. "Epitaxial Growth of Thick Ag/Si(111) Films", K.-H. Park, H.-S. Jin, L. Luo, W.M. Gibson, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 102, (Pittsburgh) (1988) p. 271.
  50. "The Effects of High and Low Dose Hydrogen Ion Implantation on Al/n-Si Schottky Diodes", A.-S. Yapsir, P. Hadizad, T.-M. Lu, J.C. Corelli, J.W. Corbett, W.A. Lanford and H. Bakhru, Mater. Res. Soc., Vol. 104, (Pittsburgh) (1988) p. 297.
  51. "Instability in Deeply Supersaturated Systems", S.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 38, 6881 (1988).
  52. "On the Metal Cluster Formation in Ionized Cluster Beam Deposition", S.-N. Mei, S.-N. Yang, J. Wong, C.-H. Choi and T.-M. Lu, J. Cryst. Growth 87, 357 (1988).
  53. "Formation of Low Temperature Al/n-Si Schottky Contacts Using Partially Ionized Beam Deposition Technique", A.-S. Yapsir, P. Bai and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 905 (1988).
  54. "Extended Bulk Defects Induced by Low Energy Ions During Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", W.I. Lee, J. Wong, J.M. Borrego and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2206 (1988).
  55. "Structural Effects in Al(111)/Si(111) Heteroepitaxy by Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", A.-S. Yapsir, C.-H. Choi, S.-N. Yang, T.-M. Lu, M. Madden and B. Tracy, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 116, p. 465 (Pittsburgh) (1988).
  56. "Defect Centers and Changes in the Electrical Characteristics of Al/n Type Si Schottky Diodes Induced by Hydrogen-ion Implantations", A.-S. Yapsir, P. Hadizad, J. Corelli, J.W. Corbett, W.A. Lanford, H. Bakhru, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B37, 8982 (1988).
  57. "Reduction of Interface Hydrogen Content by Partially Ionized Beam Deposition Technique", A.-S. Yapsir, T.-M. Lu and W.A. Lanford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1962 (1988).
  58. "Electrical Characteristics of Hydrogen Implanted Silicon Schottky Diodes Having Large Difference in Metal Work Function", A.-S. Yapsir, P. Hadizad, T.-M. Lu, J.C. Corelli, A. Sugerman and H. Bakhru, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5040 (1988).
  59. "Al/Si Interface Characteristics Formed by Partially Ionized Beam Deposition at 2.5 KV", J. Wong, T.-M. Lu and C. Lam, in Laser and Particle-Beam Chemical Processing for Microelectronics, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 101, 189 (1988).
  60. "A Simple Technique for Al Planarization", P. Bai, T.-M. Lu and S. Roberts, Proc. 5th International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference, Electron Devices Society (1988) p. 446.
  61. "Hydrogen Passivation of a Substitutional Sulfur Defect in Silicon", A.-S.Yapsir, P. Deak, R.K. Singh, L.C. Snyder, J.W. Corbett and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B38, 9936 (1988).
  62. "Partially Ionized Beam Processing: Via Filling and Planarization", T.-M.Lu, P. Bai and A.-S. Yapsir, in Techcon'88, Semiconductor Research Corporation, Research Triangle, p. 75 (1988).
  63. "Surface Modification of Silicon by Partially Ionized Beam Deposited Aluminum", R. Srinivasan, S. Murarka and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 65 , 1198 (1989).
  64. "Direct Observation of an Incommensurate Solid-Solid Interface", T.-M.Lu, A.-S. Yapsir, P. Bai, P.-H. Chang and T.J. Shaffner, Phys. Rev. B39 , 9584 (1989).
  65. "Collapsing of Thermally Induced Steps in Pb(111) Surface", H.-N. Yang, T.-M. Lu and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2148 (1989).
  66. "Partially Ionized Beam Deposition of Oriented Films", A.-S. Yapsir, L. You, T.-M. Lu and M. Madden, J. Materials Research 4, 343 (1989).
  67. "Texture Analysis of Al/SiO2 Films Deposited by a Partially Ionized Beam", D.B. Knorr and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett 54 , 2210 (1989).
  68. "Electromigration in Al/SiO2 Films Prepared By Partially Ionized Beam Deposition Technique", P. Li, A.-S. Yapsir, K. Rajan and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2443 (1989).
  69. "Self-Cleaning Effects in Partially Ionized Beam Deposition of Cu Films", G.-R. Yang, P. Bai, T.-M. Lu and L. Lou, J. Appl. Phys. 29 , 4519 (1989).
  70. "Channeling Study of Epitaxial Al and Ag Films on Si(111) Substrate", H.-S. Jin, K.-H. Park, A.-S. Yapsir, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, L. Luo, W.M. Gibson, I. Yamada and T. Takagi, Proceedings of the 10th Conference on the Application of Small Accelerators in Research and Industry (1988).
  71. "Random Field Effects on Dynamical Scaling in the Domain Growth of a Chemisorbed Overlayers", J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B40, 524 (1989).
  72. "Partially Ionized Beam Deposition of Thin Films", T.-M. Lu, Invited review paper, in "Ion Beam Processing of Advanced Electronic Materials ", Eds. N. Cheung, A. Marwick and J. Roberto, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 147, Pittsburgh, p. 207 (1989).
  73. "Low Temperature Plasma Amorphous Carbon Encapsulation for Reliable Multilevel Interconnections", J.F. McDonald, S. Dabral, X.-M. Wu, A. Martin and T.-M. Lu, Proc. of the International VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference, IEEE Electron Devices Society, New York (1989) p. 366.
  74. "Dynamical Scaling in the Domain Growth of a Chemisorbed Overlayer: W(112)(2x1)-O", J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B39 , 9432 (1989).
  75. "High-Resolution Low-Energy Electron Diffraction Study of Pb(110) Surface Roughening Transition", H.-N. Yang, T.-M. Lu and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1621 (1989).
  76. "Dielectric, Conducting, and Photonic Polymers for Devices in Multichip Packaging", J.F. McDonald, N.P. Vlannes, G.E. Wnek and T.-M. Lu, Invited paper, Materials Research Society, Electronic Packaging Materials Science, IV , ed. E. Lillie (1990).
  77. "Room Temperature Epitaxy of Cu(111)/Si(111) by Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", P. Bai, G.-R. Yang, D. Knorr and T.-M. Lu, J. Mater. Res. 5, 989 (1990).
  78. "Low Resistivity Cu Thin Film Deposition Using Self-Ions Bombardment", P. Bai, G.-R. Yang and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 198 (1990).
  79. "Deposition of Cu Films on SiO2 Using a Partially Ionized Beam", P. Bai, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu and L.W.M. Lau, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8, 1465( 1990).
  80. "Impurity Effects in Partially Ionized Beam Metal Via Filling", B. Gittleman , P. Bai, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu and C.-K. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8, 1514 (1990).
  81. "Observation of a New Al(111)/Si(111) Orientational Epitaxy", A.-S. Yapsir, C.-H. Choi and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 796 (1990).
  82. "Self-Sputtering Effects by Low-Energy Ions During Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", P. Bai, C. Steinbruchel and T.-M. Lu, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 157, 55 (1990).
  83. "Defect Analysis of Epitaxial Ag Films on Silicon by MeV Ion Channeling",G.A. Smith, K.-H. Park, S. Hashimoto and W.M. Gibson, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Surf. Sci. 233, 115 (1990).
  84. "An Unusual Orientation Relationship for a Copper Film on Si(111)", D.B. Knorr, P. Bai and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1859 (1990).
  85. "Study of Interface Impurity Sputtering in Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", P. Bai, G.-R. Yang and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3619 (1990).
  86. "Intrinsic Cu Gathering at SiO2/Si Interface", P. Bai, G.-R. Yang and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3313 (1990).
  87. "Reactive Partially Ionized Beam Deposition of Thin BaTiO3 Films", P. Li and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2336 (1990).
  88. "Low Temperature Processing for Interconnect and Packaging", Invited Paper, Advanced Metallization in Microelectronics", T.-M. Lu, J. McDonald, S. Dabral, G.-R. Yang, L. You and P. Bai, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 181, 55 (1990).
  89. "Copper-Parylene Interactions in Multilevel Interconnection Structures", J. McDonald, S. Dabral, G.-R. Yang, H. Bakhru, and T.-M. Lu, IEEE VMIC-1990, Santa Clara, CA (IEEE CAT. No. 89-644090), page 345.
  90. "Photonic Multichip Packaging Using Electro-Optic Organic Materials and Devices", J.F. McDonald, N.P. Vlannes, G.E. Wnek, T.-M. Lu, T.C. Nason and L. You, Invited Paper at SPIE/ZEEE International Symposium, Advances in Interconnects and Packaging, OPTCON'90, SPIE 1390-13 (1990).
  91. "Partially Ionized Beam Deposition of High Dielectric Constant thin Films for Multichip Module Bypass Capacitors-BaTiO3 or Ta 2O5", J. McDonald and T.-M. Lu, Proc. NEPCON, Los Angeles (1990), page 24.
  92. "Effect of Substrate Surface Roughness on the Columnar Growth of Cu Films", P. Bai, J.F. McDonald, T.-M. Lu and M. Costa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A9, 2113 (1991).
  93. "Kinetics of Overlayer Growth", J.-K. Zuo, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, NATO Advanced Study Institute Proceeding, Plenum, New York (1991).
  94. "Cu Deposition on Rough Ceramic Substrate: Physical Structure, Microstructure, and Resistivity", P. Bai, J.M. McDonald, T.-M. Lu, and M.J. Costa, J. Mater. Res. 6, 289 (1991).
  95. "High-Resolution Low-Energy Electron-Diffraction Analysis of the Pb(110) Roughening Transition", H.-N. Yang, T.-M. Lu and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. B 43, 4714 (1991).
  96. "Texture Development in Thin Metallic Films", D.B. Knorr, D.P. Tracy and T.-M. Lu, Proceedings of the 9th Intl. Conf. on Textures of Materials (1991).
  97. "Effects of Deposition Conditions on Texture in Copper Thin Films on Si(111)", D. B. Knorr and T.-M. Lu, Textures and Microstructures 13, 155 (1991).
  98. "Texture Evolution During Grain Growth of Aluminum Films", D.B. Knorr, D. P. Tracy, and T.-M. Lu, in Evolution of Thin Film and Surface Microstructures, eds. C. V. Thompson, J. Y Tsao, and D. J. Srolovitz, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 202 (1991), page 199.
  99. "Texture Development in Thin Metallic Films", D.B. Knorr, D.P. Tracy, and T.-M. Lu, Textures and Microstructures 14-18, 543 (1991).
  100. "Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Study of the Thermal Stability of Cu/Refractory Metal/Si Structures", L.C. Lane, T.C. Nason, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu and H. Bakhru, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6719 (1991).
  101. "Effect of Elementary Plasma on Metal/Si Films by Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", G.-R. Yang, T.C. Nason, P. Bai, T.-M. Lu and W.M. Lau, J. Electr. Mat. 20, 577 (1991).
  102. "Channeling Study of Partially Ionized Beam Deposited Ag Films on Si(111) Substrates", H.-S. Jin, L. You and T.-M. Lu, in Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions Symp., Ed. By H.A. Atwater, F.A. Houle, D.H. Lowndes, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., Page 69 (1991).
  103. "Microstructure of Epitaxial Al(111)/Si(111) Films Studied by Synchrotron Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction", H.H. Hung, K.S. Liang, C.H. Lee and T.-M. Lu, in Evolution of Thin Film and Surface Microstructure Symp., Ed. By C.V. Thompson, J.Y. Tsao, D.J. Srolovitz, Page. 301, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1991).
  104. "Diffusion and Adhesion of Cu/Parylene", G. Yang, S. Dabral, L. You, T.-M. Lu, H. Bakhru and J. McDonald, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 203, 271 (1991).
  105. "Low-Temperature Deposition of High Dielectric Constant Thin Films for By-Pass Capacitor Applications", P. Li, B. Gittleman and T.-M. Lu, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 203, 315 (1991).
  106. "Chromium as Adhesion Promoter and Diffusion Barrier for Cu on Parylene". S. Dabral, G.-R. Yang, H. Bakhru, T.-M. Lu and J. McDonald, IEEE, VMIC 1991, P. 408.
  107. "Correlation Between Copper Diffusion and Phase Change in Parylene", G.-RYang, S. Dabral, L. You, H. Bakhru, J. McDonald and T.-M. Lu, J. Electr. Mat. 20, 571 (1991).
  108. "XPS Study of the Atomic Structure Change of Amorphous Carbon Film Annealed in Vacuum", X.-M. Wu, C.-S. Fang, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu and I. Hill, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2986 (1991).
  109. "Study of Silver Diffusion into Si(111) and SiO2", T.C. Nason, G.-R. Yang, K.-H. Park and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1392 (1991).
  110. "High Charge Storage Density in BaTiO3 Thin Films", P. Li, T.-M. Lu and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2639 (1991).
  111. "Conduction Mechanisms in BaTiO3 Thin Films", P. Li and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B. 43, 14261 (1991).
  112. "Vacancies Induced Instability in Pb(100) Surface", H.-N. Yang, K. Fang, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. Lett. B 44, 1306 (1991).
  113. "Electro-Optic Multichip Modules with Non-Linear Organic Waveguides", J.McDonald, N.P. Vlannes, T.-M. Lu, G.E. Wnek, E.P. Boden, M. Ghezzo, K.R. Stewart, C. Yakymysn, Proc. of the IEEE sponsored Cal'Tech VLSI Conference -MCM Supplementary Meeting, Los Angeles (1991), page 93.
  114. "Low Temperature Deposition of High Dielectric Constant Thin films for Power Bypass Capacitor Applications in Multichip Modules", T.-M. Lu, P. Li, E. J. Rymaszewski, H. J. Greub, and J. McDonald, Proc. of the Technical Program, III, National Electronic Packaging and Production Conference West ‘91 (1991), page 1833.
  115. "Growth of Epitaxial Ag/Si Films by the Partially Ionized Beam Deposition Technique", T.C. Nason, L. You, G.-R. Yang and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 773 (1991).
  116. "Enhancement of Electron Thermal Diffuse Scattering by Surface Defects", H.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B. 44, 11457 (1991).
  117. "Direct Observation of Microcrystalline Structure in Amorphous BaTiO 3 Thin Films", P. Li and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59 , 1064 (1991).
  118. "XPS Study of the Atomic Structure Change of Amorphous Carbon Films Annealed in Vacuum", X.-M. Wu, C.S. Ares Fang, G.-R. Yang, I. Hill and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A9, 2986 (1991).
  119. "Partially Ionized Beam Deposition of 2-methyl-4-nitroariline (MNA) Thin Films", T. Nason, J. McDonald and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 70 (1991).
  120. "Fluorinated Paralene as an Interlayer Dielectric for Thin Film MCMs", S. Dabral, S. Zhang, X.M. Wu, G.-R. Yang, C.-I. Lang, H. Bakhru, R. Olson, T.-M . Lu, and J.F. McDonald, in Electronic Packaging Materials Science VI, Ed. By P.S. Ho, K.A. Jackson, Che-Yu Li, and G.F. Lipscomb, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., Page 439 (1992).
  121. "Vacuum Deposition of Amorphous Fluoropolymer Thin Films by Thermolysis of Teflon Amorphous Fluoropolymer", T. Nason, J. Moore and T.-M. Lu, App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1866 (1992).
  122. "Diffusion in Ni/Cu Bilayer Films", P. Bai, B.D. Gittleman, B.-X. Sun, J.F. McDonald, T.-M. Lu and M.J. Costa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1824 (1992).
  123. "Room Temperature Epitaxial Growth of Ag(110)/GaAs(100) Films", T. Nason, L. You and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 174 (1992)
  124. "SIMS Characterization of Diffusion of Al and Ag in Parylene", G.-R. Yang, S. Dabral, T.-M. Lu and J. McDonald, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A10, 2764 (1992).
  125. "Reduction in Diffusion of Cu in Parylene by Thermal Pre-Treatment", S.Dabral, G.-R. Yang, X.-M. Wu, T.-M. Lu and J. McDonald, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A10, 916 (1992).
  126. "Observation of a Novel Double-Step Phase in Pb(110) Surface", H.-N.Yang, K. Fang, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Europhys. Lett. 19, 215 (1992).
  127. "Alphatic Tetrafluorinated Parylene as a Conformal Insulator for Submicron Multilevel Interconnections", S. Dabral, X. Zhang, B.J. Howard, C. Chiang, G. Cuan, K. Hwang, R. Olson, H. Bakhru, C. Steinbruchel, T.-M. Lu, and J. McDonald, Proc. IEEE-VMIC, 1992, Santa Clara, CA, Page 86.
  128. "Time Invariant Structure Factor in an Epitaxial Growth Front", H.-N. Yang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2612 (1992).
  129. "High-Resolution Low-Energy Electron Diffraction Study of Surface Instability and Growth Fronts", H.-N. Yang, J.-K. Zuo, K. Fang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 237, 49 (1992).
  130. "Measurements of Dynamic Scaling from Epitaxial Growth Front: Fe Film on Fe(001)", Y.-L. He, H.-N. Yang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3770 (1992).
  131. "Densification Induced Dielectric Properties Change in Amorphous BaTiO3 Thin Films", P. Li, J. McDonald, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5596 (1992).
  132. "Room Temperature Epitaxial Growth of Ag on Low-Index Si Surfaces by a Partially Ionized Beam", T.C. Nason, L. You, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 1 (1992).
  133. "Low Temperature Fabrication of Amorphous BaTiO3 Thin Film By-Pass Capacitors", W.-T. Liu, S. Cochrane, S.T. Lakshmikumar, D.B. Knorr, E.J. Rymaszewski, J.M. Borrego and T.-M. Lu. IEEE Electron Device Letters 14(7), 320 (1993).
  134. "Deposition of Amorphous BaTiO3 Optical Films at Low Temperature", W.-T. Liu, S.T. Lakshmikumar, D.B. Knorr, T.-M. Lu, and Ir. Gerard A. van der Leeden. Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 574 (1993).
  135. "Reactive Sputtering Deposition of Low Temperature Tantalum Suboxide thin Films", X.-M. Wu, P.K. Wu, T.-M. Lu and E.J. Rymaszewski. Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(25), 3264 (1993).
  136. "Quasi-Two-Dimensional Crystal Growth on Structureless 3-Methylmethoxy-Nitrostilbene Thin Films", T.C. Nason, J.F. McDonald, and T.-M. Lu. Materials Chemistry and Physics 34, 142 (1993).
  137. "Vapor Deposition of Parylene Films from Precursors", L. You, G.-R. Yang, C.-I. Lang, P. Wu, J.A. Moore, J.F. McDonald and T.-M. Lu, in Chemical Perspectives of Microelectronic Materials III, edited by C.R. Abernathy, C.W. Bates, D.A. Bohling and W.S. Hobson. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 282, 593 (1993).
  138. "Planarization Techniques for Parylene as an Interlayer Dielectric", X. Zhang, L. You, S. Dabral, C. Chiang, D.S. Yaney, Rajiv Joshi, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu and J. McDonald. IEEE-VMIC, Santa Clara (1993).
  139. "aa'a'' a'''Poly-tetrafluoro-p-xylylene as an Interlayer Dielectric for Thin Film Multichip Modules and Integrated Circuits", S. Dabral, X. Zhang, X.M. Wu, G.-R. Yang, L. You, C.I. Lang, K. Hwang, G. Cuan, C. Chiang, H. Bakhru, R. Olson, J.A. Moore, T.-M. Lu, and J.F. McDonald, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 1825 (1993).
  140. "Diffraction from Surface Growth Fronts", H.-N. Yang, T.-M. Lu and G.-C. Wang. Phys. Rev. B47, 3911 (1993).
  141. "Diffuse Light Scattering Study of Pb(110) Surface Roughening-Melting Transition", H.-N. Yang, K. Fang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang. Phys. Rev. B47, 15842 (1993).
  142. "Vapor Deposition of Parylene-F by Pyrolysis of Dibromotetrafluoro-p-xylene", L. You, G.-R. Yang, C.-I. Lang, J.A. Moore, P. Wu, J.F. McDonald, and T.- M. Lu, J. Vac. Technol. A11, 3047 (1993).
  143. "Intense THz Beam From Organic Electro-Optic Materials", X.-C. Zhang, T.-M. Lu, and C.P. Yakymyshyn, Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics 14, 119 (1993).
  144. "Deposition, Structural Characterization, and Broad-Band Dielectric Behavior of BaxTi2-xOy Thin Films", W.-T. Liu, S. Cochrane, P. Beckage, D.B. Knorr, T.-M. Lu, J.M. Borrego, and E.J. Rymaszewski, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 310, 157 (1993).
  145. "Vacuum Deposition of Nonlinear Chromophore-Polymer Composite Thin Films", G.-R. Yang, X.F. Ma, W.X. Chen, L. You, P.K. Wu, J. F. McDonald, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 533 (1994).
  146. "Texture of Vapor Deposited Parylene Thin Films", L. You, G.-R. Yang, D. B. Knorr, J. F. McDonald, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2812 (1994).
  147. "Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Amorphous Fluoropolymer Thin Films", T. C. Nason and T.-M. Lu, Thin Solid Films, 239, 27 (1994).
  148. "Roughening/Faceting in Pb Growth on Pb(110)", K. Fang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. B49, 8331 (1994).
  149. "Interaction of Amorphous Fluoropolymer With Metal", P.K. Wu, G.-R. Yang, X.-F. Ma, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 508 (1994).
  150. "Dielectric Constant Dependence of Poole-Frenkel Potential in Tantalum Oxide Thin Films", X.M. Wu, S.R. Soss, E.J. Rymaszewski, and T.-M. Lu, Materials Chemistry and Physics 38, 297 (1994).
  151. "Frequency Domain (1 KHz-40 GHz) Characterization of Thin Films for Multichip Module Packaging Technology", W.-T. Liu, S. Cochrane, X. Pershan, X. Zhang, D.B. Knorr, E.J. Rymaszewski, J.M. Borrego, and T.-M. Lu, Electronics Letters 30, 117 (1994).
  152. "Anomalous Dynamic Scaling on the Ion-Sputtered Si(111) Surface", H.-N. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B50, 7635 (1994).
  153. "Instability in Low Temperature Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of Si/Si(111)", H.-N. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2348 (1994).
  154. "High Frequency Measurements of Dielectric Thin Films", P.K. Singh, R.S. Cochrane, J.M. Borrego, E.J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, and K. Chen, IEEE MTT-SYM Digest Vol. 3, 1457 (1994).
  155. "Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aromatic Polymers", J.A. Moore, C.-I. Lang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-R. Yang, Polym. Mater. Sci. and Eng. 72, 437 (1995).
  156. "Real Time Measurement of the Deterministic Relaxation of an Initially Rough Si(111) surface", H.-N. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2276 (1995).
  157. "Thermally Stable Amorphous BaxTa2-xOy thin films", W.-T. Liu, S.T Lakshmikumar, D.B. Knorr, E.J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 809 (1995).
  158. "Measurement of Surface Roughness Parameter Using Angle Resolved Light Scattering", K. Fang, R. Adame, H.-N. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M, Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2077 (1995).
  159. "Surface Reaction and Stability of Parylene N and F Films at Elevated Temperatures", P.K. Wu, G.-R. Yang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Electr. Mat. 24, 53 (1995).
  160. "High Frequency Response of Fine Grain BaTiO3 Thin Films", P.K. Singh, S. Cochrane, W.-T. Liu, K. Chen, D.B. Knorr, J.M. Borrego, E.J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3683 (1995).
  161. "Partially Ionized Beam Deposition of Metal on Insulator", S.R. Soss, C.A. Cook, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2735 (1995).
  162. "Structural and Electro-Optical Investigation of a Vapor-Deposited Chromophore-Polymer Thin Film", P.K. Wu, G.-R. Yang, X.-F. Ma, A. Cococziela, T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2258 (1995).
  163. "When Interface Gets Rough", invited paper, in "Fractal Aspects of Materials", T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and H.-N. Yang, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 367, 283 (1995).
  164. "Inconsistency Between Height-Height Correlation and Power-Spectrum Functions of Scale-Invariant Surfaces for Roughness Exponents a~1", H.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 51, 2479 (1995).
  165. "Formation of Facets and Pyramidlike Structures in Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of Si on Singular Si(111) Surface", H.-N. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 51, 14293 (1995).
  166. "Quantitative Study of the Decaying of Intensity Oscillation in Transient Layer-by-Layer Growth", H.-N. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17932 (1995).
  167. "Vapor Depositable, Low Dielectric Constant Polymers", J.A. Moore, C.-I. Lang, T.- M. Lu, and G.-R. Yang, Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 72, 437 (1995).
  168. "Thin Film Integral Capacitor Fabricated on a Polymer Dielectric for High Density Interconnect Applications", K.-W. Paik and T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 390, 33 (1995).
  169. "Vapor Deposition of Low K Polymer Films", C.-I. Lang, G.-R. Yang, D. Mathur, L. You, J.A. Moore, and T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 381, 45 (1995).
  170. "Low Dielectric Constant Polymers for on-Chip Interlevel Dielectrics", R.J. Gutmann, T. P. Chow, T.-M. Lu, J.A. McDonald, and S.P. Murarka, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 381, 177 (1995).
  171. "Metal-Parylene Interconnection Systems", S. Dabral, X. Zhang, B. Wang, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu, and J.F. McDonald, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 381, 205 (1995).
  172. "Vapor Depositable, Low Dielectric Constant Polymer Thin Films for ULSI and Packaged Electronics Applications", T.-M. Lu, J.A. Moore, J.F. McDonald, C.-I. Lang, and G.-R. Yang, SEMICON WEST Proc., 1995.
  173. "Diffraction From Reconstructed Surfaces With Incommensurate Domain Walls", R.W. Cutler, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Surf. Sci. 340, 258 (1996).
  174. "Noise Induced Growth Front Roughening During Amorphous Si Growth", H.-N. Yang, Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3774 (1996).
  175. "Extraction of Real Space Correlation Function of a Rough Surface by Light Scattering Using Diode Array Detectors", Y.-P. Zhao, H.-N. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3063 (1996).
  176. "In Situ Real Time Study of Etching Process of Si(100) Using Light Scattering", Y.-P. Zhao, Y.-J. Wu, H.-N. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 221 (1996).
  177. "Metal/Polymer Interface Adhesion by Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", S. Dabral, G.-R. Yang, B. Gittleman, P.K. Wu, C. Li, X. Zhang, J.F. McDonald, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 5759 (1996).
  178. "Microstructure of Parylene Films and the Effect of Copper Diffusion", G.- R. Yang, D. Mathur, X.M. Wu, S. Dabral, J. F. McDonald, and T.-M. Lu, J. Electr. Mater. 25, 1778 (1996).
  179. "High Electro-Optic Side-Chain Polymer by Vapor Deposition Polymerization", C.C. Roberts, G.-R. Yang, A. Cocoziello, Y.-P. Zhao, G. Wnek, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2067 (1996).
  180. "Epitaxial Quality of Thin Ag Films on GaAs(100) Surfaces Cleaned With Various Wet Etching Techniques", K.E. Mello, S.R. Soss, S.P. Murarka, T.-M. Lu, and S.L. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 681 (1996).
  181. "Low-Temperature epitaxial Growth of CoGe2(001)/GaAs(100) Films Using the Partially Ionized Beam Deposition Technique", K.E. Mello, S.R. Soss, S.P. Murarka, T.-M. Lu, and S.L. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1817 (1996).
  182. "Electron Transport in High Textured Metal Films Grown by Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", S.R. Soss, B. Gittleman, K.E. Mello, T.-M. Lu, and S.L. Lee, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 403, 633 (1996).
  183. "Room Temperature Deposition of High Dielectric Constant High Density Ceramic Thin Films", K. Chen, M. Nielsen, S. Soss, S. Liu, E.J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 415, 243 (1996).
  184. "Study on the Interface of Cu/PA-N and PA-N/Si by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy", G.-R. Yang, D. Mathur, J.F. McDonald, and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 3169 (1996).
  185. "Low and High Dielectric Constant Thin Films for Integrated Circuit Applications", R.J. Gutmann, W.N. Gill, T.-M. Lu, J.F. McDonald, S.P. Murarka, and E.J. Rymaszewski, in Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications, MRS ULSI XII, 393 (1997).
  186. "Study of Electron Trapping in the Amorphous Tantalum Oxide Thin Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Reactive Sputtering", K. Chen, M. Nielsen, E.J. Rymaszewski, and T.-M. Lu, Materials Chemistry and Physics 49, 42 (1997).
  187. "Sampling Induced Hidden Cycles in Correlated Random Rough Surfaces", H.-N. Yang, A. Chan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. B56, 4224 (1997).
  188. "X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Al/Ta2O 5 and Ta2O5/Al Buried Interfaces", K. Chen, G.-R. Yang, M. Nielsen, E.J. Rymaszewski, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 399 (1997).
  189. "Deposition of High Purity Parylene-F Using Low-Pressure Low-Temperature Chemical-Vapor-Deposition", P.K. Wu, G.-R. Yang, L. You, D. Mathur, A. Cocoziello, C.-I. Lang, J.A. Moore, T.-M. Lu, and H. Bakru, J. of Electr. Mat. 26 (8), 963, 1997.
  190. "Texture Analysis of CoGe2 Alloy Films Grown Heteroepitaxially on GaAs(100) Using Partially Ionized Beam Deposition", K.E. Mello, S.P. Murarka, T.-M. Lu, and S. Lee, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1 (1997).
  191. "Study of Tantalum-Oxide Thin Film Capacitors on Metallized Polymer Sheets for Advanced Packaging Applications", K. Chen, M. Nielsen, S. Soss, E.J. Rymaszweski, T.-M. Lu, and C.T. Wan, IEEE Transactions CPMT: B/Advanced packaging, Vol. 20, 117 (1997).
  192. "Vapor Deposition of Low-Dielectric Constant Polymeric Thin Films", T.-M. Lu and J.A. Moore, Materials Research Society Bulletin 22, 28 (October 1997).
  193. "Study of Amorphous Ta2O5 Thin Films by DC Magnetron Reactive Sputtering", K. Chen, M. Nielsen, G.-R. Yang, E.J. Rymaszewski, and T.-M. Lu, J. Electronic Materials 26, 397 (1997).
  194. "Structural Characterization of CoGe2 Alloy Films Grown Heteroepitaxially on GaAs(100) Substrates Using the Partially Ionized Beam Deposition Techniques", K.E. Mello, S.P. Murarka, S. Lee, and T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 427, 565 (1997).
  195. "Metal/Polymer Adhesion Enhancement by Reactive Ion Assisted Interface Bonding and Mixing", P.K. Wu and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2710 (1997).
  196. "Diffraction From Non-Gaussian Rough Surfaces", Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 55, 13938 (1977).
  197. "Improved growth and thermal stability of Parylene films", S. Ganuli, H. Agrawal, B. Wang, J.F. McDonald, T.-M. Lu, G.-R. Yang, and W. Gill, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15, 3138 (1997).
  198. "Diffraction From Diffusion Barrier Induced Mound Structures in Epitaxial Growth Fronts", Y.-P. Zhao, H.-N. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B57, 1922 (1998).
  199. "Beyond Intensity Oscillation", T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and Y.-P. Zhao, Surface Review and Letters 5, 899 (1998).
  200. "High Deposition Rate Parylene Films", G.-R. Yang, S. Ganguli, J. Karcz, W.N. Gill, and T.-M. Lu, J. Crystal Growth 183, 385 (1998).
  201. "Chemical Interactions at Ta/Fluorinated Polymer Buried Interfaces", G.-R. Yang, Y.-P. Zhao, B. Wang, E. Barnat, J. McDonald, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1846 (1998).
  202. "Discrete Ta2O5 Crystalline Formation in Reactively Sputtered Amorphous Thin Films", P.J. Beckage, D.B. Knorr, X.-M. Wu, T.-M. Lu, and E.J. Rymaszewski, J. Mat. Res., submitted.
  203. "Characterization of Random Rough Surfaces by In-Plane Light Scattering", Y.-P. Zhao, Irene Wu, C.-F. Chen, U. Block, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2571 (1998)
  204. "Power Law Behavior in the Diffraction From Fractal Surfaces", Y.-P. Zhao, C.-F. Chen, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Surface Sci. Lett. 409, L703 (1998)
  205. "Diffraction from anisotropic random rough surfaces", Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B58, 7300 (1998).
  206. "Anisotropy in growth front roughening", Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 58, 13909 (1998).
  207. "Characterization of pitting corrosion in aluminum films by light scattering", Y.-P. Zhao, C.-F. Cheng, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2432 (1998).
  208. "Composite and multilayered TaOx-TiOy high dielectric constant thin films." M.C. Nielsen, J.Y. Kim, E.J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, , IEEE Transactions CPMT:B/Advanced Packaging, Vol. 21, No.3, pp. 274 (1998).
  209. "Low temperature deposition of high quality tantalum-oxide onto polyimide substrates." M.C. Nielsen, J. -Y. Kim, E.J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, K. Durocher, R. Saia, and H. Cole, Proceedings of the 41st Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, Society of Vacuum Coaters, Boston MA (1998).
  210. "Low temperature deposition of high dielectric films using reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering", M.C. Nielsen, J. -Y. Kim, E.J. Rymaszewski, and T.-M. Lu, invited paper, Proceedings of the 193rd Electrochemical Society: First Symposium on Dielectric Materials for Advanced Electronic Packaging, San Diego, CA, (1998).
  211. "Ion beam techniques for low k materials characterization", H. Bakhru, A. Kumar, T. Kaplan, M. Delarosa, J. Fortin, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu, S. Kim, C. Steinbruchel, X. Tang, J.A. Moore, B. Wang, J. Mcdonald, S. Nitta, V. Pisupatti, A. Jain, P. Wayner, J. Plawsky, W. Gill, and C. Jin, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 511, p 125 (1998).
  212. "Evaluation of TaNx and Al as Barriers to Fluorine Diffusion from Fluorinated Parylenes'', B. Wang, J. Fortin, M. Nielsen, G.-R. Yang, J. F. McDonald, and T.-M. Lu, Proceeding of 1998 DUMIC, p. 245.
  213. "Integrated discrete components." E.J. Rymaszewski, T. -M. Lu, M.C. Nielsen, J. -Y. Kim, invited paper- Proceedings of the 193rd Meeting of the Electrochemical Society: First Symposium on Dielectric Materials for Advanced Electronic Packaging, San Diego, CA (1998).
  214. "Low k materials and low k/metal interface characterization by ion beam techniques", A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, M. DelaRosa, J. Fortin, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu, S. Kim, C. Steinbruchel, B. Wang, J. McDonald and C. Jin, Proceedings of the 1998 TECHCON, Las Vegas.
  215. "Thin film density determination by multiple radiation energy dispersive X-ray reflectivity" D. Windover,A. Kumar, E. Barnat, Y.K. Jin, T.-M. Lu, S. L. Lee, Proceedings of the 47th Annual Denver X-ray Conference, Colorodo Springs, CO (1998).
  216. "Characterization of Low-k Materials for Interlevel Dielectric Applications", T.M. Lu, P.S. Ho, S.P. Murarka and R.J. Gutmann, invited paper, Proceedings of the DUMIC Conference, Santa Clara, CA (1998), p. 17.
  217. "H atom assisted Jet Vapor Deposition of parylene N thin films'', B.L. Halpern, P. Komarenko, R.F. Graves, P.D. Fuqua, J.F. McDonald, G.-R. Yang, L. Wang, T.-M. Lu, M. Tomozawa, and I. Matthew, MRS Symp. Proc, 1998 Fall.
  218. "Characterization of Atomic Hydrogen Cross-linked Parylene Using a Jet Process Deposition'', B.L. Halpern, P. Komarenko, R.F. Graves, P.D. Fuqua, J.F. McDonald, G.-R. Yang, L. Wang, T.-M. Lu, M. Tomozawa, and I. Matthew, DUMIC (1999).
  219. "Study of fluorine diffusion in metallized polymers using ion beam techniques A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, J. Fortin, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu, B. Wang, J. McDonald, Materials Chemistry and Physics 59, 136 (1999).
  220. "Vapor Deposition of Parylene-F using Hydrogen as Carrier Gas'', D. Mathur, G.-R. Yang and T.-M. Lu, J. of Materials Research 14, 246 (1999).
  221. "Numerical Analysis of the Noisy Kuramoto-Sivashinsky Equation in 2+1 Dimensions", J.T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. E. 59, 177 (1999)
  222. "Roughening in Plasma Etch Fronts of Si(100)", Y.-P. Zhao, J. T. Drotar, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4882 (1999).
  223. "Time-domain Dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle", M. Li, G. C. Cho, T.-M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S.-Q. Wang and J.T. Knnedy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113(1999).
  224. "Thin film measurement on semiconductor surface in GHz-THz frequency range", Ming Li, G.C. Cho, S.Q. Wang, J.T. Kennedy, T.-M. Lu and X.-C. Zhang, Proceedings of CLEO'99(CWF60)on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore (1999)
  225. "Pulsed DC Magnetron Sputtering of Tantalum-Oxide Films", M.C. Nielsen, J.Y. Kim, E.J. Rymaszewski, and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol, submitted.
  226. "Monte Carlo Simulation of the Initial Growth Stage in Vapor Deposition Polymerization", Y.-P. Zhao, A.R. Hopper, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. E60, 4310 (1999).
  227. "Surface roughness effect on capacitance and leakage current of an insulating film", Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, G. Palasantzas, and J.Th.M. De Hosson", Phys. Rev. B60, 9157 (1999).
  228. "Investigation of moisture absorption in xerogel films by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis techniques", H.-Q. Lu, I.B. Bhat, A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu, and C. Jin, Submitted to Thin Solid Films.
  229. "Diffusion barriers for fluorinated low-K dielectrics", M.J. DelaRosa, T.-M. Lu, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 564, 559 (1999).
  230. "Pulsed bias magnetron sputtering of thin films on insulators", E. Barnat and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3322 (1999).
  231. "Vapor deposition of low K polymeric dielectrics", W.N. Gill, S. Rogojevic, and T.-M. Lu, book chapter, edited by P. Ho et al, submitted.
  232. "X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Studies of Buried Al/SiO2 Interfaces", Pei-I Wang, G.-R. Yang, S. P. Murarka, and T.-M. Lu, submitted to Thin Solid Films.
  233. "X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of Cu-Al alloy/SiO2 interface", Pei-I Wang, G.-R. Yang, S.P. Murarka, and T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. 564, 347 (1999).
  234. "Study of surface etch-front morphology using in-plane light scattering", Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, SPIE Proc. 3784 (1999).
  235. "Large angle in-plane light scattering from rough surfaces", T. Karabacak, Y.-P. Zhao, M. Stove, B. Quayle, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Appl. Optics 39, 4658 (2000).
  236. "Surface roughness, magnetic domains, and coercivity of a thin magnetic film", Y.-P. Zhao, G. Palasantzas, R. Gammache, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, and J. Th.M. De Hosson, Submitted to J. Appl. Phys.
  237. "Surface roughening in shadowing growth and etching in 2+1 dimension", J.T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. B. 62, 2118 (2000).
  238. "Electrical characteristics of thin Ta2O5 films deposited by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering", J.-Y. Kim, M.C. Nielsen, G. Rymaszewski, and T.-M. Lu, submitted to J. Appl. Phys. 87, 274 (2000)
  239. "Mechanism for plasma and reactive ion etch front roughening", J.T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. B. 61, 3012 (2000).
  240. "Electrical conductivity and thin film growth dynamics", G. Palasantzas, Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, J. Barnas, and J.Th.M. De Hosson, Phys. Rev. B 61, 11109 (2000).
  241. "Energy-dispersive, X-ray reflectivity density measurements of porous SiO2 xerogels", D. Windover, T.-M. Lu, S.L. Lee, A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Jin, and W. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 158 (2000).
  242. "Metal diffusion barriers for porous SiO2", A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C.Jin, W.W. Lee, T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3567 (2000).
  243. "Anisotropic scaling of hard disk surface structures", T. Karabacak, Y.-P. Zhao, T. Liew, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3361 (2000).
  244. “Morphology transition during low-pressure chemical vapor deposition”, Y.-P. Zhao, Jason T. Drotar, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 136102 (2001).
  245. "Growth-front roughening in amorphous silicon films by sputtering", T. Karaback, Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B64, 085323 (2001).
  246. “Surface roughening in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition”, Jason T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. B64, 125411 (2001).
  247. “Reflection high energy electron diffraction from Carbon nanotubes”, Jason T. Drotar, B.-Q. Wei, Y.-P. Zhao, G. Ramanath, P.M. Ajayan, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125417 (2001).
  248. Reply to the comment “On the Kinetic Roughening in Polymer Film Growth by Vapor Deposition”, P. Punyindu and S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett., Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2697, 2001.
  249. “Surface Roughness, Magnetic Domains, and Coercivity of a Thin Magnetic Film”, Y.-P. Zhao, G. Palasantzas, R.M. Gamache, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, and J.Th.M. De Hosson, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1325, 2001.
  250. “Why is KPZ Type Surface Roughening So Hard to Observe?”, J.T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Material Research Society Proceeding, 648, P7.9.1, 2001.
  251. “Measurement of the Dielectric Constant of Thin Films Using Goniometric Time-Domain Spectroscopy”, M. Li, J. Fortin, J.Y. Kim, G. Fox, F. Chu, T. Davenport, T.-M. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, International Conference, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, Edited by D.G. Seiler, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, 392, 2000.
  252. “Interactions Between Silican Xerogel and Tanatalum”, S. Rogojevic, A. Jain, F. Wang, W. Gill, P. Wayner, J. Plawsky, T.-M. Lu, G.-R. Yang, W. Lanford, A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, and A. Roy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 354, 2001.
  253. “Chemical Structure Determination, Modeling, and Adhesion Enhancement of Metal/Polymer Interfaces”, P.K. Wu and T.-M. Lu, in Metallized Plastics 7: Fundamental and Applied Aspects, ed. K.L. Metal, VSP, Utrecht, p. 215, 2001.
  254. “Image Plate X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Reflectivity Characterization of Protective Coatings and Thin Films”, S. Lee, D. Windover, M. Doxbeck, M. Nielsen, A. Kumar, T.-M. Lu, Thin Solid Films 377, 447, 2000.
  255. “Real Time Resistivity Measurements During Sputter Deposition of Ultra Thin Copper Films on Silicon Dioxide Surfaces”, E. Barnat, D. Nagakura, Pei-I Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Proceedings of the IEEE International Interconnect Technology Conference”, June 4, 2001.
  256. “High frequency response of amorphous tantalum oxide thin films”, J.-Y. Kim, A. Garg, E. Rymaszewski, and T.-M. Lu, IEEE Trans. Comp., Packag., Manufact. Technol. 24, 526 (2001).
  257. “Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Rough Si Films Deposited on Si(111)”, J.B. Wedding, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Surface Science, 478, 83-98, 2001.
  258. "Metal drift behavior in low-k organosiloxane dielectric", A. Mallikarjunan, S. P. Murarka, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 (12), 1855 (2001).
  259. "Thermal Stability of Xerogel Films", A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, J.B. Fortin, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu, C. Jin, and W.W. Lee, Thin Solid Films 396 (2001) 5-8.
  260.  "Ultraviolet radiation induced degradation of poly-para-xylylene (parylene) thin films", J.B. Fortin and T.-M. Lu, Thin Solid Films 397, 223 (2001)
  261. "Transient charging effects on insulating surfaces exposed to a plasma during pulse biased dc magnetron sputtering", E. Barnat and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5898 (2001).
  262. "Pulse bias sputtering of copper onto insulating surfaces", E. Barnat, T.-M. Lu, and J. Little, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4946 (2001).
  263. "Development of an in-line X-ray reflectivity technique for metal film thickness measurement", D. Windover, E. Barnat, J. Summers, and T.-M. Lu, AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 550, 243 (2001).
  264. “Dielectric Constant Measurement of Thin Films Using Goniometric Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy”, M. Li, J. Fortin, J.Y. Kim, G. Fox, F. Chu, T. Davenport, T.-M. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics Quantum Electronics, 7, 624, 2002.
  265. “Measured energy distributions of ions driven by an asymmetrically pulsed bias during magnetron sputtering, E. Barnat and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2984 (2002).
  266. “Real time resistivity measurements during sputter deposition of ultrathin copper films”, E. Barnat, D. Nagakura, P.-I. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1667 (2002).
  267. “Thin Film Characterization Using Terahertz Differential Time-Domain Spectroscopy and Double Modulation”, S.P. Mickan, K.-S. Lee, T.-M. Lu, E. Barnat, J. Munch, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4591, 2002.
  268.  “Novel Nano-Column and Nano-Flower Arrays by Glancing Angle Deposition”, Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Nano. Lett. 2, 351, 2002.
  269.  “Fabrication of Si Nano-Columns and Si Square Spirals on Self-Assembled Monolayer Colloid Substrates”, Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, Pei-I Wang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, International J. of Nanoscience 1, 87, 2002.
  270.  “The Surface Chemistry of Mercaptan and Growth of Pyridine Short-Chain Alkoxy Silane Molecular Layers”, J.J. Senkevich, C.J. Mitchell, G.-R. Yang, and T.-M. Lu, Langmuir 18, 5, 1587-94, 2002.
  271.  “How Does a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscopy Probe Affect the Determination of Surface Roughness Statistics?” Q.M. Hudspeth, K.P. Nagle, Y.-P. Zhao, T. Karabacak, C.V. Nguyen, M. Meyyappan, G.-C. Wang, and T.­M. Lu, Surface Science, 515, pp. 453–461, September, 2002.
  272. “A Model for the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Poly(para-xylylene) (Parylene) Thin Films”, J.B. Fortin and T.-M. Lu, Chem. Mater. 14, 1945, 2002.
  273.  “Vacancy-Enhanced Submonolayer Nucleation of Si on Si(100)”, J.B. Wedding, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Surf. Sci. 504, 28, 2002.
  274. “Copper Wetting of a Tetrasulfide Self-Assembled Monolayer”, J.J. Senkevich, B. Li, G.-R. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Electrochemical and Solid State Letters 5, C94, 2002.
  275.  “Ultrafast Optical Switch Properties of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composites at 1.55  m”, Y.-C. Chen, N.R. Raravikar, Y.-P. Zhao, L.S. Schadler, P.M. Ajayan, T.- M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Letts. 81, 975, 2002.
  276. “Plasma surface modification for ion penetration barrier in organosiloxane polymer”, A. Mallikarjunan, G.-R. Yang, S.P. Murarka, and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1884 (2002).
  277.  “Thermal stability of mercaptan terminated self-assembly multilayer film s on SiO2 surfaces”, J. Senkevich, G.-R. Yang, and T.-M. Lu, Colloids and Surfaces A 207, 139 (2002).
  278. “Growth Front Roughening in Silicon Nitride Films by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition”, T. Karabacak, Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 66, 075329/1, 2002.
  279.  “Mobile ion detection in organosiloxane polymer using triangular voltage sweep”, A. Mallikarjunan, S.P. Murarka, and T.-M. Lu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F155 (2002).
  280. "Manupulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumar films by glancing-angle deposition", D.-X. Ye, Y.-P. Zhao, G.-R. Yang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu,  Nanotechnology 13, 615 (2002).
  281. “Retardation of Oxidation in Co Nano Columns”, J.P. Singh, G.R. Yang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4601 (2002).

302. “Fixed angle, energy dispersive X-ray reflectivity measurements of thin tantalum film thickness”, D. Windover, E. Barnat, J. Summers, T.-M. Lu, A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, and S. Lee, J. Electr. Mater. 31, 848 (2002).

303.“Vapor deposition of low-K polymeric dielectrics”, W. Gill, S. Rogojevic, and T.-M. Lu, in Low dielectric constant materials for IC Applications, edited by P.S. Ho, J. Leu, and W.W. Lee, Springer (2002), page 95.

304."Phosphorus Atomic Layers promoting the Chemisorption of Highly Polarizable Transition Metallorganics", Jay J. Senkevich, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu, T.S. Cale, C. Jezewski, W.A. Lanford, Chem. Vap. Deposition 8(5)189-92 (2002).

305.“Influence of hydrogen on the evolution of the electrical resistivity of ultra-thin sputtered copper films measured in real time”, E.V. Barnat, P.-I. Wang, D. Nagakura, and T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 721, 73 (2002).

306."In situ phase evolution study in magnetron sputtered tantalum thin films", S.L. Lee, D. Windover, T.-M. Lu, and M. Audino, Thin Solid Films 420-421, 287 (2002).

307.“Aqueous Ammonium Sulfide to Modify the Surface of Low k Dielectric Thin Films”, J.J. Senkevich, G.-R. Yang, and T.-M. Lu, Colloids and Surfaces A 214 119-126, 2003.

308.“Tera Tool: Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy is a Highly Sensitive Optical Tool for Dielectric and Optical Property Characterization of Thin Films at Terahertz Frequency”, K.S. Lee, T.-M. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE LEOS Newsletter, February issue, 34, 2003.

309.“The Dielectric and Optical Property Characterization of Dielectric Films at THz Frequency”, K.-S. Lee, T.-M. Lu, and X.-C. Zhang, Circuits & Devices, 18, 23, 2003.

310.“Reduced Sulfur-Terminated Silanes to Promote the Interaction of Palladium(II) Hexafluoroacetylacetonate with Dielectric Surfaces”, J.J. Senkevich, C.J. Mitchell, G.-R. Yang, and T.-M. Lu, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 221, 29, 2003.

311.“Magnetic Properties of Co Nano Columns Fabricated by Oblique Angle Deposition”, F. Tang, D.-L. Liu, D.-X. Ye, A. Vijayaraghavan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys., 91, 4194, 2003.

312."Field-induced cation migration in Cu oxide films by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy", J.P. Singh, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 26, 4672 (2003).

313.“Model Relating Process Variables to Film Electrical Properties for Reactively Sputtered Tantalum Oxide Thin Films”, P. Jain, V. Bhagwat, E.J. Rymaszewski, T.-M. Lu, S. Berg, and T.S. Cale, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3596, 2003.

314.“Scaling During Shadowing Growth of Isolated Nanocolumns”, T. Karabacak, J. P. Singh, Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B, V.68, No:12, p. 125408, 2003.

315.“Nanoridge Domains in -Phase W Films”, J.P. Singh, T. Karabacak, T. -M. Lu, and G. -C. Wang, Surface Science, Volume 538, Issue 3, L483, 2003.

316."Novel growth mechanism of single crystalline Cu nanorods by electron beam irradiation", Pei-I Wang, Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Nanotechnology 15, 218 (2003).

317."Novel mechanisms on the growth morphology of films", T.-M. Lu, Y.-P. Zhao, J.T. Drotar, T. Karabacak, and G.-C. Wang, Mat. Res. Soc. Proc 749, 3 (2003).

318."Novel beta-phase W nanorod formation by oblique-angle sputter deposition", T. Karabacak, A. Mallikarjunan, J.P. Singh, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu,

Appl. Phys. Lett., V.83, p.3096 (2003).

319.                "Quasi-periodic nano-structures grown by oblique angle deposition", T.

Karabacak, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys., V.94, p.7723 (2003).

320. “Si-Nanocolumns as novel nanostructured supports for enzyme immobilization”,

Tae-Jin Yim, Dae-Yun Kim, Sandeep S. Karajanagi, Toh-Ming Lu, Ravi Kane and Jonathan S. Dordick, J. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 3, No. 6, 479, Dec 2003.

321. "Mechanics of helical Si nanosprings”, D.-L. Liu*, D.-X. Ye*, F. Khan+, F. Tang*, B.-K. Lim#, R.C. Picu+, G.-C. Wang* & T.-M. Lu*", J. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 3, No. 6, 492, Dec (2003).

322. "Substrate Independent Palladium Atomic Layer Deposition", J.J. Senkevich, F. Tang, D. Rogers, J.T. Drotar, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, C. Jezewski, W.A. Lanford, Chemical Vapor Deposition 9(5) 258-264 (2003).

323. “Copper Penetration into Ultra-low k Methyl Silsesquioxane During

Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition”, Christopher Jezewski, W.A. Lanford, Jay J. Senkevich, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, C. Jin, Chemical Vapor Deposition 9(6) 305-307 (2003).

            324. "Fabrication and Imaging of Protein Crossover Structures", J.R. LaGraff, Y.-P. Zhao, D.J. Graber, D. Rainville,* G.C. Wang, T.M. Lu, Q. Chu-LaGraff, D. Szarowski, W. Shain, J.N. Turner, in: Bio-inspired Nanoscale Hybrid Systems, Eds. G. Schmid, U. Simon, S.J. Stranick, S.M. Arrivo, S. Hong, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 735, 33 (2003).

 

325.“Hindered Copper Ion Penetration into Parylene-N Films”, A. Mallikarjunan, G. Yang, J.J. Senkevich, C. Wiegand, E. Williams, and T.-M. Lu Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 6(8) F28-F29, 2003.

326.“Real Time Technique to Measure the Electrical Resistivity of Ultra-Thin Films During Growth in Plasma Environments”, E.V. Barnat, D. Nagakura, and T.-M. Lu, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  74, 3385 (2003).

327.“Stability of Fluorinated Parylenes to Oxygen Reactive Ion Etching under Aluminum, Aluminum Oxide, and Tantalum Nitride Overlayers”, J.J. Senkevich, B. Wang, J.B. Fortin, M.C. Nielsen, J.F. McDonald, T.-M. Lu, G.M. Nuesca, G.G. Peterson, S.C. Selbrede, and M.T. Weise, Journal of Electronic Materials 32(9) 925-931 (2003).

328.“Mechanical enhancement of nanoporous low-K films as interlayer dielectrics by ion implantation”, A.N.U. Roy, Z.P. Patel, A. Mallikarjunan, H.Bakhru, and T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. 734, 109 (2003).

329.“The effect of interfacial chemistry on metal ion penetration into polymeric films”
A. Mallikarjunan, J. Juneja, G. Yang, S.P. Murarka, and T.-M. Lu, T.-M., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp 734, 371 (2003).

330.“Nanoindentation Study of the Mechanical Behavior of Silicon Nano-springs”, Bin Li, Zhiquan Luo, Paul S. Ho, and Toh-Ming Lu, Description: http://authors.aip.org/i/empty.gifAIP Conf. Proc. 683(1) 525 (2003).

331.Metal-coated Si springs: Nanoelectromechanical actuators”, J. P. Singh, D.-L. Liu, D.-X. Ye, R. C. Picu, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3657 (2004).

332.“Bias-temperature stability of ultrathin parylene-capped dielectrics: influence of surface oxygen on copper ion diffusion”, Senkevich, J.J. (Dept. of Phys., Rensselaer Polytech. Inst., Troy, NY, USA); Wang, P.-I.; Wiegand, C.J.; Lu, T.-M. Source: Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2617 (2004).

333.“Separation of copper ion-induced and intrinsic polymer instabilities in polyarylether using triangular voltage sweep”, A. Mallikarjunan, S.P. Murarka, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1216 (2004).

334.“Real-time observation of initial stages of copper film growth on silicon

oxide using reflection high-energy electron diffraction”, Jason T. Drotar, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7071 (2004).

335."Novel growth mechanism of single crystalline Cu nanorods by electron beam irradiation", Pei-I Wang, Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Nanotechnology 15, 1, 218-222 (2004).

336."Molecular CaulkingTM: A Pore Sealing Chemical Vapor Deposited Polymer for Ultra-low k  dielectrics" Jezewski, W.A. Lanford, J.J. Senkevich, C. J. Wiegand, A. Mallikarjunan, D. Lu, G.-C. Wang, T.-M.  Lu, C. Jin, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 151(7) F157-161 (2004).

337.“Stress reduction in tungsten films using nanostructured compliant layers by oblique angle sputter deposition”, T. Karabacak, C.R. Picu, J.J. Senkevich, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5740 (2004).

338.Size effect and strain rate sensitivity in benzocyclobutene film”, D.-L. Liu, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang

, and R. C. Picu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3053 (2004). 

339.Growth of Uniformly Aligned Nanorod Arrays by Oblique Angle Deposition with Two-Phase Substrate Rotation”, D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, B.K. Lim, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Nanotechnology 15, 817 (2004).

340.Physical Self-Assembly and the Nucleation of 3D Nanostructures by Oblique Angle Deposition”, T. Karabacak, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22, 1778 (2004).

341.“Field Ionization of Argon Using b-Phase W Nanorods”, J.P. Singh, T. Karabacak, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and N. Koratkar, Appl. Phys. Letters 85(15) 3226 (2004).

342.“Enhanced Cold Field Emission from <100> Oriented b-W Nanoemitters, J.P. Singh, F. Tang, T. Karabacak, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 1048 (2004).

343.“Growth of Single Crystal Tungsten Nanorods by Oblique Angle Sputter Deposition”, T. Karabacak, P.-I. Wang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 788, 75 (2004).

344.“Asymmetry of magneto-optical kerr effect loops of co nano-columns grown by oblique incident angle deposition”, F. Tang, D.L. Liu, D.-X. T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, J. of Mag. and Mag. Mater. 283, n 1, November, 65-70 (2004).

345.“Effective Pore Sealing of Ultralow-K Dielectrics”, C. Jezewski, W.A. Lanford,

C.J. Wiegand, J.J. Senkevich, and T-M Lu, J. of Semiconductor International, Vol. 27, (5) pp 56-59 (2004).

346.“Continuum Model for Nanocolumn Growth During Oblique Angle Deposition”, E. Main, T. Karabacak, and T. M. Lu, Description: http://authors.aip.org/i/empty.gifJ. Appl. Phys. 95, 8, 4346, April 15 (2004).

347.“Novel Epoxy Siloxane Polymer as Low K Dielectrics”, P.-I. Wang, J.S. Juneja,

S. Murarka, T.-M. Lu, and R. Ghoshal, Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 812, 31 (2004).

348.“Molecular Caulk: A Pore Sealing Technology for Ultra-Low K Dielectrics”, J.J. Senkevich, C. Jezewski, D. Liu, W.A. Lanford, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 812, 1 (2004).

349.“Enhanced Photoluminescence of PPV Thin Film Coated on the Nano-Structured

Substrate by Glancing Angle Deposition”, T. Karabacak, C. Wiegand, D. Jia, J.J. Senkevich, and T.-M. Lu, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 7, H36 (2004).

350."Correlation Between Bond Cleavage in Parylene N and the Degradation of its Dielectric Properties", J.J. Senkevich, A. Mallikarjunan, C.J. Wiegand, T.-M. Lu, H.N. Bani-Salameh, and R.L. Lichti, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 7(4) G56-58 (2004).

351.“Selective Deposition of Ultrathin Poly(p-xylene) Films on Dielectrics Versus Copper Surfaces”, J.J. Senkevich, C.J. Wiegand, G.-R. Yang, T.-M. Lu, Chemical Vapor Deposition 10, 247 (2004).

352."Structural study of a low dielectric thin film using x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering”, C.-H. Hsu, U-Ser Jeng, Hsin-Yi Lee, Chih-Mon Huang, K.S. Liang, D. Windover, T.-M. Lu and C. Jin Chia Hua Shu, T.-M. Lu, Thin solid films Vol 472, 323 (2005).

353.“Direct Copper Electroless Deposition on a Tungsten Barrier Layer for Ultralarge Scale Integration”, Young-soon Kim, Dae-lok Bae, Hoichang Yang, Hyung-shik Shin, G.-C. Wang, J. J. Senkevich, and T.-M. Lu, J.  Electrochem.  Soc. 152, C89 (2005).

354.“Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of Pd”, G.A. Ten Eyck, J.J. Senkevich, F. Tang, D.-L. Liu, S. Pimanpang, T. Karabacak, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, C. Jezewski, and W.A. Lanford, Chem. Vap. Dep. 11, 60 (2005).

355.“Inductively Coupled Hydrogen Plasma-Assisted Cu Atomic Layer Deposition on Metallic and Dielectric Surfaces”, C. Jezewski,* W.A. Lanford,* C.J. Wiegand, J.P. Singh, P.-I. Wang  J.J. Senkevich, and T.-M. Lu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C60 (2005)

356.Enhanced Step Coverage by Oblique Angle Physical Vapor Deposition, T. Karabacak and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys., 97, 124504, 2005.

357.Stress Reduction in Sputter Deposited Films Using Nanostructured Compliant Layers by High Working-Gas Pressures, T. Karabacak, J.J. Senkevich, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 23, 986, 2005.

358.“Polycarbosilane-Based Films for Interlayer Dielectric Applications”, Z. Wu; P.-I. Wang, T.-M. Lu, and L.V Interrante, Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering 92, 106-107, 2005.

359.“Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Co Thin Films from Co2(CO)8”,  D.-X. Ye, S. Pimanpang, C. Jezewski, F. Tang, J. J. Senkevich, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 485(1-2), pp 95-100, 2005.

360.“Evaluation of a Novel Cu(I) Precursor for Chemical Vapor Deposition”, D.-X. Ye, B. Carrow, S. Pimanpang, H. Bakhru, G.A. Ten Eyck, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 8, C85, 2005.

361."Uniform Si nano-structures grown by oblique angle deposition with substrate swing rotation", D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacacak, R. C. Picu, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Nanotechnology 16, 1717 (2005).

362.“Atomic layer deposition of Pd on TaN for Cu electroless deposition”, Young-soon Kim, G. A. Ten Eyck, D.-X. Ye, C. Jezewski, T. Karabacak, H.-S Shin, J. J. Senkevich, and T.-M. Lu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C376 (2005).

363.Effects of substrate temperature on properties of pulsed dc reactively sputtered tantalum oxide films”, Pushkar Jain, Jasbir S. Juneja, Vinay Bhagwat, Eugene J. Rymaszewski, Toh-Ming Lu, and Timothy S. Cale, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A23, 512 (2005).

364.Shadowing growth and physical self-assembly of 3D columnar structures” in Handbook of Theoretical and Computational Nanotechnology, T. Karabacak and T.-M. Lu (American. Scientific Publishers, Stevenson Ranch, CA, 2005), Vol. 9 (Nanocomposites, Nano-Assemblies, Nanosurfaces), chap. 69, pp. 729-779.

365.“Physical self-assembly and nanopatterning”, T.-M. Lu, D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, and G.-C. Wang, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 849, KK8.4 (2005).

366.“AFM, SEM and in situ RHEED study of Cu texture evolution on amorphous carbon by oblique angle vapor deposition”, F. Tang, C. Gaire, D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. B, 72, 035430 (2005).

367.“Phase transformation of single crystal β-tungsten nanorods at elevated temperatures”, Tansel Karabacak, Pei-I Wang, Gwo-Ching Wang and Toh-Ming Lu,
Thin Solid Films, Volume 493, Issues 1-2, 293-296 (2005).

368.  “Pressure dependent Parylene pore sealant penetration in porous low K dielectrics”, Jasbir. S. Juneja, Gregory A. Ten Eyck, T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2232 (2005).

369.  “Texture evolution during shadowing growth of isolated Ru columns”, F. Tang, T. Karabacak, P. Morrow, C. Gaire, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B, 72, 165402 (2005).

370.“Physical properties of nanostructures grown by oblique angle deposition”, J.P. Singh, T. Karabacak, D.-X. Ye, D.-L. Liu, C. Picu, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2114 (2005).

371.“Mechanical testing of isolated amorphous Si slanted nanorods”, C. Gaire, D.-X. Ye, F. Tang, R. C. Picu, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 5, 1893 (2005).

372.“Atomic Layer Deposition of Pd on an Oxidized Metal Substrate
G. A. Ten Eyck, S. Pimanpang, H. Bakhru, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang
Chemical Vapor Deposition 12, Issue 5, 290 (2006).

373."Water electrolysis activated by Ru nanorod array electrodes," S.-Y. Kim, T. Karabacak, T.-M. Lu, and Nikhil Koratkar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263106 (2006), has been selected for the July 11, 2006 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology.

374.“Low Temperature Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition of Ti-Si-N-O Barrier Films”, Y. C. Ee, Z. Chen, T.-M. Lu, Z. L. Dong, and S. B. Law, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 9 (3), G100-G103 (2006).

375.“Mound Formation in Surface Growth under Shadowing,” M. Pelliccione, T. Karabacak, C. Gaire, and G.-C. Wang, Phys. Rev. B 74, 12 (2006).

376.“Achieving a photonic band edge near visible wavelengths by metallic coatings”, S.Y. Lin, D.-X. Ye, T.-M. Lu, J. Bur, Y.S. Kim, and K.M. Ho, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083104 (2006).

377.“Surface pole figures by reflection high-energy electron diffraction”, F. Tang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241903 (2006).

378.“Direct plating of Cu on Pd plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition coated TaN barrier”, Nicole E. Lay, Gregory A. Ten Eyck, David J. Duquette, and Toh-Ming Lu, Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, 10(1), (2006).

379.“Damping properties of epoxy films with nanoscale fillers”, J. Suhr, N.A. Koratkar, D. Ye, and T.-M. Lu, J. Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 17, 255 (2006).

380.“Fluid transport through nanochannels using nanoelectromechanical actuators”, M.A. Soare, R.C. Picu, J. Tichy, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang,  J. Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 17, 231 (2006).

381.“Enhanced photoemission from nanostructured surface topologies”, R. Teki, N. Koratkar, T. Karabacak, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 193116 (2006).

382.“Low temperature melting of copper nanorod arrays”, T. Karabacak, J. S. DeLuca, D. Ye, P.-I. Wang, G. Ten Eyck, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys., 99, 064304 (2006).

383."Self-assembled monolayer growth on chemically modified polymer surfaces", S. Pimanpang, Pei-I Wang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 3532 (2006).

384.“Interfacial interaction of in-situ Cu growth on Tetrasulfide self-assembled monolayer on plasma treated Parylene surface”, S. Pimanpang, Pei-I Wang, Jasbir S. Juneja, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24 (5) 1884-91 (2006).

385."Effect of hydrophilic group on water droplet contact angles on surfaces of acid modified SiLK and Parylene polymers", S. Pimanpang, Pei-I Wang, J.J. Senkevich, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Colloids and Surfaces A (Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects) 278 (no 1-3), 53-59 (2006).

386.“Very low-refractive-index optical thin films consisting of an array of SiO2 nanorods”, J.-Q. Xi, Jong Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, Dexian Ye, T.-M. Lu, and Shawn-Yu Lin, Optics Letters 31, 601 (2006).

387.Electroless copper on refractory and noble metal substrates with an ultra-thin plasma-assisted atomic layer deposited palladium layer

” Young-Soon Kim, Hyung-Il Kim, Joong-Hee Cho, Hyung-Kee Seo, M. A. Dar, Hyung-Shik Shin, Gregory A. Ten Eyck, Toh-Ming Lu, and Jay J. Senkevich, Electrochimica Acta, 51(12), 2400 (2006).

388.“Investigation of the electrical properties of novel polycarbosilane-based polymer as low-k dielectric”, Pei-I Wang, Zhizhong Wu, T.M. Lu, and L. V. Interrante, , J. Electrochem. Soc. 153 (4), G267 (2006).

389.“Stability of Cu on epoxy silosane polymer under bias temperature stress”, Pei-I Wang, J.S. Juneja, S. P. Murarka, T. –M. Lu, C. Jezewski, Ram Ghoshal, Rajat Ghoshal, and H. Bakhru, , J. Electrochem. Soc. 153 (4), G358 (2006).

390.“Texture of Ru columns grown by oblique angle sputter deposition”, P. Morrow, F. Tang, T. Karabacak, P.-I. Wang, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 24, 235 (2006).

391.“Bias-Temperature Stability of Ti–Si–N–O Films”, Y. C. Ee, Jasbir S. Junej, Pei-I Wang, T.-M. Lu, H. Bakhru, Chan, S. B. Law, Clare Yong, Z. Chen, and S. Xue, J.  Electrochem. Soc. 153, G470 (2006).

392.“Dielectric barriers, pore sealing, and metallization”, J. S. Juneja, P.-I. Wang, T. Karabacak, and T.-M. Lu, Thin Solid Films, 504, 239 (2006).

393.“Copper drift in high-dielectric-constant tantalum oxide thin films under bias temperature stress”, Pushkar Jain, Jasbir S. Juneja, A. Mallikarjunan, E. J. Rymaszewski, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 143502 (2006).

394.² ²

395.“A Novel Polycarbosilane-Based Low-k Dielectric Material”, Pei-I. Wang,a, Zhizhong Wu, Toh-Ming Lu, and Leonard V. Interrante, J. Electr. Chem. Soc. 153 (4), G267-G271 (2006).

396.“Onset of thermal degradation in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films deposited by chemical vapor deposition”, Cynthia A. Gedelian, Gregory A. Ten Eyck, and Toh-Ming Lu, Synthetic Metals 157, 48 (2007).

397.“Onset of thermal degradation in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films deposited by chemical vapor deposition”, Cynthia A. Gedelian, Gregory A. Ten Eyck, and Toh-Ming Lu, Synthetic Metals 157, 48 (2007).

398.“Unusual magnesium crystalline nanoblades grown by oblique angle vapor deposition”, F. Tang, T. Parker, H.-F. Li, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 7, 1 (2007).

399.“Experimental realization of a well-controlled 3D silicon spiral photonic crystal”, D.-X. Ye, Z.-P. Yang, A.S.P. Cang, J.Bur, S.Y. Lin, T.-M. Lu, R.Z. Wang, S. John, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 1 (2007).

400.“Fan-like aggregations on seeds by parallel ballistic flux”, D.-X. Ye and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B75, 115420 (2007).

401.“Preferred orientation in Ru nanocolumns induced by residual oxygen”, J. P. Singh, T. Karabacak, P. Morrow, S. Pimanpang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 7, 2192 (2007).

402.“Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition”, Ranganath Teki, Thomas C. Parker, Huafang Li, Nikhil Koratkar, Toh-Ming Lu, and Sabrina Lee, Thin Solid Films, 16 October, online version (2007).

403.“Self-shadowing in ballistic fan formation from point seeds", M. Pelliccione and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 75, 245431 (2007).

404.“Non-local effects in thin film growth”, M. Pelliccione and T.-M. Lu, Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 21, No. 19, 1207 (2007).

405.“In situ reflection high energy electron diffraction surface pole figure study of biaxial texture evolution in anisotropic Mg nanoblades during shadowing growth”, F. Tang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014306 (2007).

406.“Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of palladium on a polymer substrate”, G. A. Ten Eyck, S. Pimanpang, J. S. Juneja, H. Bakhru, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, Chemical Vapor Deposition 13, Issue 6-7, 307 (2007).

407.“Effects of three-dimensional Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier on texture selection during Cu nanorod growth”, Christopher G. Johansen, Hanchen Huang, and Toh-Ming Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121914 (2007).

408.“Surface texture evolution of polycrystalline and nanostructured films: RHEED surface pole figure analysis”, TOPICAL REVIEW, F. Tang, T. Parker, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 (2007).

409.“Wetting and electro-wetting properties of carbon nanotube templated parylene films”, Zuankai Wang, Ya Ou, Toh-Ming Lu and Nikhil Koratkar, J. Phys. Chem. B, 111 (17), 4296 (2007).

410.“Ballistic aggregations on two-dimensional arrays of seeds with oblique incident flux”, D.-X. Ye  and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 76, 235402 (2007).

411.“Interface stability of metal barrier and low k dielectrics”, T.-M. Lu, Y. Ou, and P.-I. Wang, in Materials, Processes, Integration and Reliability in Advanced Interconnects for Micro- and Nanoelectronics, Editors: Qinghuang Lin, E. Todd Ryan, Wen-li Wu, Do Yeung Yoon, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 990-B09-05 (2007).

412.“Instability of Metal Barrier with Porous Methyl Silsesquioxane Films”,

       Pei-I Wang, Jasbir S. Juneja, Y. Ou, T.-M. Lu, and Greg S. Spencer, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 155(2), H53 (2008).

413.Novel photocurable epoxy siloxane polymers for photolithography and imprint lithography applications”,  J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 26, Issue 1, pp. 244-248 (2008).

414. “Deformation of amorphous silicon nanostructures subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading”, C. Gaire, D-X. Ye, T-M. Lu, G-C. Wang, and R.C. Picu, J. Mater. Res., Vol. 23, 328, (2008).

415.“Low temperature synthesis of single crystalline ZnO nanorods by oblique angle deposition”, Ranganath Teki , Thomas C. Parker, Huafang Li, Nikhil Koratkar, Toh-Ming Lu, and Sabrina Lee, Thin Solid Films 516, 4993 (2008).

416.“Shadowing growth of three-dimensional nanostructures on finite size seeds”,D.-X. Ye, C. L. Ellison, B.-K. Lim, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103531 (2008).

417.Influence of Nanotips on the Hydrophilicity of Metallic Nanorod Surfaces”, D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256102 (2008).

418.Biaxially oriented CaF2 films on amorphous substrates”, H.-F. Li, T. Parker, F. Tang, G.-C. Wang,_, T.-M. Lu, S. Lee, J. Crystal Growth 310, 3610 (2008).

419.“Thermal Stability Study of Pore Sealing Using Parylene N”, Ya Ou, Pei-I Wang, Lakshmanan H. Vanamurthy, Hassaram Bakhru, Toh-Ming Lu, and Greg Spencer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, H819-H822 (2008).

420.Deformation of amorphous Si nanostructures subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading”, C. Gaire, D.-X. Ye, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and R. C. Picu, J. of Mater. Res. 23 (2), 328 (2008).

421. “Shadowing growth of biaxially textured nanostructured films”, Toh-Ming Lu, Fu Tang, and Gwo-Ching Wang, Proc. of SPIE vol.7041, 704107-1 (2008).

422.Morphology and texture of Cu nanorod films grown by controlling directional flux in physical vapor deposition”, H.-F. Li, A. K. Kar, T. Parker, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Nanotechnology 19, 335708 (2008).

423.“In situ RHEED study of dehydrogenation process of Pd coated Mg nanoblades”, F. Tang, W. Yuan, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, J. of Appl. Phys. 104, 033534 (2008).

424.“Non-contact atomic force microscopy characterization of vibrators with frequencies up to the tens of MHz”, T. C. Parker, F. Tang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Sensors & Actuators A: Physical 148, 306 (2008).

425.Pd catalyst effect on low temperature hydrogen desorption from hydrided ultrathin Mg nanoblades”, F. Tang*, T. Parker*, H.-F. Li, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Nanotechnology, 19, 465706 (2008).

426."Mechanical properties of porous methyl silsesquioxane (MSQ) and nanoclustering silica (NCS) films using atomic force microscope", C. Gaire, Y. Ou, R. C. Picu, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, Journal of Porous Materials 23(2), 328 (2008).

427. “High Temperature Metal Coating for Modification of Photonic Band Edge Position,” T. A. Walsh, T.-M. Lu, and S.Y. Lin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1450–1455 (2009).

428.Enhanced pyroelectric crystal D—D nuclear fusion using tungsten nanorods”, Donald J. Gillich, Ranganath Teki, Travis Z. Fullem, Andrew Kovanen, Ezekiel Blain, Douglas B. Chrisey, Toh-Ming Lu, Yaron Danon, Nano Today 4, 227 (2009).

429.“Low Temperature Wafer Bonding by Copper Nanorod Array”, Pei-I Wang, Sang Hwui Lee, Thomas C. Parker, Michael D. Frey, Tansel Karabacak, Jian-Qiang Lu, and Toh-Ming Lu, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 12, H138 (2009).

430.“Size control of Cu nanorods through oxygen-mediated growth and low temperature sintering”, Pei-IWang, Thomas C Parker, Tansel Karabacak, G-CWang, and T-M Lu, Nanotechnology 20, 085605 (2009).

431.Effect of Tip Geometry on Photo-Electron-Emission from Nanostructures”, Ranganath Teki, Toh-Ming Lu, and Nikhil Koratkar, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 9, 1749 (2009).

432.“Introduction of molecular scale porosity into semicrystalline polymer thin films using supercritical carbon dioxide”, Peter Gin, Mitsunori Asada, Maya K. Endoh, Cynthia Gedelian, Toh-Ming Lu, and Tadanori Koga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121908 (2009).

433.Sputter-Deposited Pt PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes: Particles vs Layers”, M. D. Gasda, R. Teki, T.-M. Lu, N. Koratkar, G. A. Eisman, and D. Gall, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 156, B614 (2009).

434.Enhanced pyroelectric crystal D-D nuclear fusion using tungsten nanorods”, Donald J. Gillich a, Ranganath Tekib, Travis Z. Fullema, Andrew Kovanena, Ezekiel Blain, Douglas B. Chrisey, Toh-Ming Lu, Yaron Danon, Nano Today 4, 227 (2009).

435.“Diffusion and formation energies of adatoms and vacancies on magnesium surfaces”, Christopher G. Johansen, Hanchen Huang, Toh-Ming Lu, Computational Materials Science 47,121–127  (2009).

436.“Electric Field Directed Self-Assembly of Cuprous Oxide Nanostructures for Photon Sensing”

Sangeeta Sahoo, Sudhir Husale, Bryant Colwill, Toh-Ming Lu, Saroj Nayak, and Pulickel M. Ajayan, ECS Nano 3, 3935 (2009).

437. “Monolithic Microfluidic Mixing-Spraying Devices for Time-Resolved Cryo-Electron Microscopy”, Zonghuan Lu, Tanvir R. Shaikh, David Barnard, Xing Meng, Hisham Mohamed, Aymen Yassin, Carmen A. Mannella, Rajendra K. Agrawal, Toh-Ming Lu, and Terence Wagenknecht, Journal of Structural Biology 168, 388–395 (2009).

438. “The formation of vertically aligned biaxial tungsten nanorods using a novel shadowing growth technique”, R Krishnan, T Parker, S Lee and T-M Lu, Nanotechnology 20, 465609 (2009).

439. “Biaxial CdTe/CaF2 films growth on amorphous surface”, W. Yuan, F. Tang, H.-F. Li, T. Parker, N. LiCausi, T.-M. Lu, I. Bhat, G.-C. Wang, S. Lee, Thin Solid Films, Volume 517, Issue 24, 6623 (2009).

440. “Growth of CdTe Films on Amorphous Substrates Using CaF2 Nanorods as a Buffer Layer”,

Nicholas LiCausi, Wen Yuan, Fu Tang, Thomas Parker, Huafang Li, Gwo-Ching Wang, Toh-Ming Lu and Ishwara Bhat, J. of Electronic Materials 38 (8), 1600 (2009).

441.“Nanostructured Silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries”, Ranganath Teki, Moni K. Datta, Rahul Krishnan, Thomas C. Parker, Toh-Ming Lu, Prashant N. Kumta, Nikhil Koratkar, Small, Small 5, No. 20, 2236 (2009).

442. Coherent Acoustic Vibrations in Silicon Submicron Spiral Arrays”, Masashi Yamaguchi, Jianxun Liu, Dexian Ye, and Toh-Ming Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 033517 (2009).

443. “High Temperature Metal Coating for Modification of Photonic Band Edge Position,” T. A. Walsh, J. Burg, T.-M. Lu, and S.Y. Lin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 26, no. 7, 1450 (2009).

444. “Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) Study of Nanostructures: From Diffraction Patterns to Surface Pole Figures”, Fu Tang, Toh-Ming Lu, and Gwo-Ching Wang, MRS Symp. vol. 1184, GG02-01 (2009).

445. “Mechanical properties of porous methyl silsesquioxane and nanoclustering silica films using atomic force microscope”, C. Gaire, Y. Ou, H. Arao, M. Egami, A. Nakashima, R. C. Picu, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, J Porous Mater. 17, 11 (2010).

446.  “Small angle grain boundary Ge films on biaxial CaF2/glass substrate”, C. Gaire, P.C. Clemmer, H.-F. Li, T.C. Parker, P. Snow, I. Bhat, S. Lee, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, Journal of Crystal Growth 312, 607 ((2010).

447. “Passive microfluidic device for submillisecond mixing”, Zonghuan Lu, Jay McMahon, Hisham Mohamed, David Barnard, Tanvir R. Shaikh, Carmen A. Mannella, Terence Wagenknecht, Toh-Ming Lu, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 144, 301 (2010).

448. “Low hydrogen containing amorphous carbon films—Growth and electrochemical properties as lithium battery anodes”, V. Subramanian, Tansel Karabacak, Charan Masarapu, Ranganath Teki, Toh-Ming Lu, and Bingqing Wei, J. Pow. Sour.  195, 2044 (2010).

449. “Use of ultra-thin aluminum oxide layer to reduce photoluminescence decay in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films”, Cynthia A. Gedelian, Ya Ou, Huafang Li, Toh-Ming Lu,Thin Solid Films 518, 4367–4369 (2010).

450. “UV Nanoimprint Lithography of sub-100 nm Nanostructures Using a Novel UV Curable Epoxy Siloxane Polymer”, Dexian Ye, Pei-I Wang, Zhuqiu Ye,  Ya Ou, Rajat Ghoshal, Ram Ghoshal, and Toh-Ming Lu, Microelectronic Engineering 87, 2411 (2010).

451. “Biaxially Textured Al Film Growth on CaF2 Nanostructures toward a Method of Preparing Single-Crystalline Si Film on Glass Substrates”, H.-F. Li, P. Snow, M. He, P.-I Wang, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, ACS Nano 4, 5627 ( 2010).

452. “Type B epitaxy of Ge on CaF2(111) surface”, T.-L. Chan , C. Gaire, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, S.B. Zhang, Surface Science 604, 1645 (2010).

453. “Morphology and texture evolution of nanostructured CaF2 films on amorphous substrates under oblique incidence flux”, C. Gaire, P. Snow, T.-L. Chan, W. Yuan, M. Riley, Y. Liu, S.B. Zhang, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Nanotechnology 21, 445701 (2010).

454. “A model for column angle evolution during oblique angle deposition”, B. Tanto, G. Ten Eyck, and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 026107 (2010).

455. ”Novel Ultrathin Mg Nanoblades for Hydrogen Storage”, Gwo-Ching Wang, Fu Tang, and Toh-Ming Lu, Hydrogen Storage Materials, MRS Proceedings Volume 1216E online paper: 1216-W05-02 (2010).

456. “Morphological evolution in ballistic deposition”, C. Lehnen and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. B 82, 085437 (2010).

457. “Kinetics of Tantalum ions penetration in porous low-k dielectrics”, Ming He, Ya Ou, Pei-I Wang and Toh-Ming Lu,  Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 222901 (2010).

458. “Barrier metal ions drift into low-k dielectrics under bias temperature stress”, Ming He, Ya Ou, Pei-I Wang, Lakshmanan. H. Vanamurthy, Hassaram Bakhru, and Toh-Ming Lu Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1249, 1249-F05-09 (2010).

459.  “Residual Stress Reduction in Sputter Deposited Thin Films by Density Modulation”, Arif S. Alagoz, Jan-Dirk Kamminga, Sergey Yu Grachev, Toh-Ming Lu, and Tansel Karabacak, Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. Vol. 1224 © 2010 Materials Research Society 1224-FF05-22.

460. “Quasi-single Crystal Semiconductors on Glass Substrates through Biaxially Oriented Buffer Layers”, T.-M. Lu, H. Li, C. Gaire, N. Licausi, T.-L. Chan, I. Bhat, S.B. Zhang, and G.-C. Wang, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1268 © 2010 Materials Research Society 1268-EE03-06.

461. “Measurements of Resonance Frequency of Parylene Microspring Arrays Using Atomic Force Microscopy”, C. Gaire, M. He, A. Zandiatashbar, P.-I. Wang, R. C. Picu, G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1299 © 2011 (DOI: 10.1557/opl.2011.63)

462. “Mechanism for the Formation of Isolated Poly(p-xylylene) Fibrous Structures under Shadowing Growth”, Ming He, Pei-I Wang, and Toh-Ming Lu, Langmuir 27, 5107–5111 (2011).

463. “Study of metal adhesion on porous low-k dielectric using telephone cord buckling”, M. He, C. Gaire, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, Microelectronics Reliability 51, 847–850 (2011).

464. “RHEED Pole Figure Measurements of Biaxial Thin Film Growth Front Evolution”,  Gwo-Ching Wang, Yu Liu, Churamani Gaire, Wen Yuan, and Toh-Ming Lu, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1308 © 2011 Materials Research Society (DOI: 10.1557/opl.2011.307)

465. “Functionally Strain-Graded Nanoscoops for High Power Li-Ion Battery Anodes”, Rahul Krishnan, Toh-Ming Lu, and Nikhil Koratkar, Nano Lett. 11, 377–384 (2011).

466. “Rapid ultraviolet-curing of epoxy siloxane films”, Pei-I Wang, Justin Bult, Rajat Ghoshal, Ram Ghoshal, Toh-Ming Lu, Materials Chemistry and Physics 129. 678– 682 (2011).

467. “Formation of biaxially textured molybdenum thin films under the influence of recrystallization conditions”, Rahul Krishnan, Michael Riley, Sabrina Lee, Toh-Ming Lu, Thin Solid Films 519, 5429 (2011).

468.  “Temperature dependent biaxial texture evolution in Ge films under oblique angle vapor deposition”, P. Snow, C. Gaire, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, Thin Solid Films 519, 5413 (2011).

469. “Unidirectional self-patterning of CaF2 nanorod arrays using capillary Pressure”, D. Han, H. Li, T.-M. Lu, and A. Steckl, J. Mater. Res., Vol. 26, No. 2, 223 (2011).

470. “Large artificial anisotropic growth rate in on-lattice simulation of obliquely deposited nanostructures”, B. Tanto, C. F. Doiron, and T.-M. Lu, Phys. Rev. E 83, 016703 (2011).

471. “Wetting of nanostructured germanium electrodes by polyethylene oxide”, A. Zandiatashbar, C. Gaire, C.R. Picu, T.-M. Lu, G. Subramanian, Micro & Nano Letters, Vol. 6, Iss. 6, pp. 448–450 (2011).

472. “Bias-temperature stress of Al on porous low-k dielectrics”, Ming He, Huafang Li, Pei-I Wang, Toh-Ming Lu, Microelectronics Reliability 51, 1342–1345 (2011).

473. “Low-temperature cycling of hydrogenation-dehydrogeneration of Pd-decorated Mg nanoblades”, Y. Liu, L. Chen, T.-M. Lu and G.-C. Wang, International J. of Hydrogen Energy 36, 11752 – 11759 (2011).

474. “Study of metal adhesion on porous low-k dielectric using telephone cord buckling”, M. He, C. Gaire, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu, Microelectronics Reliability 51, 847–850 (2011).

475. “Biaxially textured Mo films with diverse morphologies by substrate-flipping rotation”, L. Chen, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Nanotechnology 22, 505701 (2011).

476. “Novel Ultrathin Mg Nanoblades for Hydrogen Storage”, Fu Tang, Gwo Ching Wang and Toh-Ming Lu, Materials Research Soc. Proc. Vol. 1216-W05-02 (2011).

477. “Photocatalytic Properties of Porous Titania Grown by Oblique Angle Deposition”, Riley, M. J., Williams, B., Condon, G. Y., Borja, J., Lu, T. M., Gill, W. N., & Plawsky, J. L.   Journal of Applied Physics, 111(7), 074904 (2012).

478. “Epitaxial growth of CdTe thin film on cube-textured Ni by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition”, C. Gaire, S. Rao, M. Riley, L. Chen, A. Goyal, S. Lee, I. Bhat, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang,Thin Solid Films 520 (6), 1862 (2012).

479. “Low temperature epitaxial growth of Ge on CaF2 buffered cube-textured Ni”, C. Gaire, J. Palazzo, I. Bhat, A. Goyal, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, J. Cryst. Growth 343, 31 (2012).

480.  “Nanostructured electrodes for high-power lithium ion batteries”, Rahul Mukherjee, Rahul Krishnan, Toh-Ming Lu, Nikhil Koratkar, Nano Energy 1, 518-533 (2012).

481. “Resistivity of sub-50 nm copper lines epitaxially grown on Si(100) substrate”

Pei-I Wang, Michael D. Frey, Morris Washington, Saroj Nayak, and Toh-Ming Lu, Thin Solid Films 520, 6106 (2012).

482.  “Orientation modulated epitaxy of Cu nanorods on Si(100) substrate”, Pei-I Wang, Huafang Li, and Toh-Ming Lu, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 11, 542 (2012).

483. “Incident flux angle induced crystal texture transformation in nanostructured molybdenum films”, L. Chen, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 024303 (2012).

484. “Nanostructured Porous Silicon Films for Terahertz Optics”, Michael Riley, Albert Redo-Sanchez, Panagiotis Karampourniotis, Joel Plawsky, Toh-Ming Lu, Nanotechnology 23, 325301 (2012)).

485. “Impact of frequency from bipolar applied field on dielectric breakdown for low-k materials”,

Juan Borja, Joel. L. Plawsky,T-M. Lu, William N. Gill, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 59, 1745 (2012).

486. “Engineering Epitaxial-Nanospiral Metal Films Using Dynamic Oblique Angle Deposition”,

Liang Chen, Luke Andrea (2012 summer REU), Yukta P. Timalsina, Gwo-Ching Wang, and Toh-Ming Lu, Cryst. Growth and Des. 13, 2075-2080 (2013).

 

487. “A study of Parylene coated Pd/Mg nanoblabes for reversible hydrogen storage”,

Y. Liu, Alexander Rzhevskii, S. Rigos (2011 summer REU), W.Y. Xie, S.B. Zhang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, International Journal of Hydrogen storage 38, 5019-5029 (2013).

 

488. “Evidence of enhanced electron-phonon coupling in ultrathin epitaxial copper films”, Y.P. Timalsina, X. Shen, G. Boruchowitz, Z. Fu, G. Qian, M. Yamaguchi, G.-C. Wang, K.M. Lewis, and T.-M. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191602 (2013).

 

489. “Penetration of Copper-Manganese Self-Forming Barrier into SiO2 Pore-Sealed SiCOH during Deposition”, Borja, J., Plawsky, J. L., Gill, W. N., Bakhru, H., He, M., & Lu, T. M., ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 2(9), N175-N178 (2013).

 

490. “On the dynamics of Cu ions injection into low-k nanoporous materials under oscillating applied fields“, J. Borja,  J.L. Plawsky, T. -M. Lu, and W. Gill,  J. Appl. Phys. 113, 034104 (2013). 

 

491. “Orientation domains in metalorganic chemical vapor deposited CdTe(111) film on cube-textured Ni”, G.-C. Wang, L.H. Zhang, K. Kisslinger, C. Gaire, A. Goyal, I. Bhat, and T.-M. Lu, Thin Solid Films 351, 217 (2013).

 

492. “Full 3-D Monte Carlo simulation of pit-type defect evolution during energetic deposition”, R. Spivey, R. Teki, T.-M. Lu, Thin Solid Films 540, 173-182 (2013).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.06.017.

 

493. “Creation of biaxial body center cubic tungsten nanorods under dynamic shadowing effect”, L. Chen, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, Thin Solid Films, 539 (2013) 65-69.

 

494. “Dynamic oblique angle deposition of nanostructures for energy applications”, G.-C. Wang, T.-M. Lu and I. Bhat, In Advanced ceramic coatings and materials for extreme environments III Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 34 Issue 3, pages 31-45 (2013). (Peer reviewed proceedings)

 

495. “Initial bridges between two ribosomal subunits are formed within 9.4 milliseconds, as studied by time-resolved cryo-EM”, Tanvir R. Shaikha, Aymen S. Yassina, Zonghuan Lu, David Barnard, Xing Meng, Toh-Ming Lu, Terence Wagenknecht, and Rajendra K.

Agrawal, PNAS 111 (27) 9822-9827 (2014).

 

496. “Photoluminescence of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well heterostructures on amorphous surface through biaxial metal buffer layers”, Liang Chen, Theeradetch Detchprohm, Christian Wetzel, Gwo-Ching Wang, Toh-Ming Lu, Nano Energy 5, 1–8, rapid communication (2014).

 

497. “Instrument response of reflection high energy electron diffraction pole figure”,

L. Chen, J. Dash, P. Su, C.F. Lin, I. Bhat, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 288, 458-65 (2014).

 

498. “Fiber texture of sputter deposited molybdenum films and structural zone model”,

L. Chen, P. Shimpi, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, Materials Chemistry and Physics 145, 288-296 (2014).

 

499. “CdTe/ZnTe/GaAs Heterostructures for Single-Crystal CdTe Solar Cells”,

Peng-Yu Su, Chunggho Lee, Gwo-Ching Wang, Toh-Ming Lu, and Ishwara B. Bhat, J. of Electronic Mater. 43 (8), 2895-2900 (2014).

 

500. “Metal enhanced Ge1-xSnx alloy film growth on glass substrates using biaxial CaF2 buffer layer”, J. K. Dash, L. Chen, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, L. H. Zhang, and K. Kisslinger, Cryst. Eng. Comm. 16, 8794-8804 (2014). DOI: 10.1039/C4CE01228C.

 

501. “Reduced stability of copper interconnects due to wrinkles and steps on hexagonal boron nitride substrates”, Jian Gao, Philippe K. Chow, Abhay V. Thomas, Toh-Ming Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 123108 (2014).

 

502. “Photoluminescence properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) films deposited by chemical vapor deposition”, Cynthia A. Gedelian, K.C. Rajanna, Brian Premerlani, Toh-Ming Lu, Journal of Luminescence 145 (2014) 473–479.

 

503. “Correlation between plasma damage and dielectric reliability for ultra-porous low k materials”, Juan Borja, Joel. L. Plawsky, T.-M. Lu, Hassaram Bakhru, and William Gill, ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 3, N59-N61 (2014).

 

504. “Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low k materials”, Juan Borja, Joel. L. Plawsky, T.-M. Lu, Hassaram Bakhru, and William Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 084107 (2014).

 

505. “Detection of charge carrier confinement into mobile ionic defects in nanoporous dielectric films for advanced interconnects”, Juan Borja, Joel L. Plawsky, Toh-Ming Lu, William N. Gill, Thomas M. Shaw, Robert B. Laibowitz, Eric G. Liniger, Stephan A. Cohen, Robert Rosenberg, and Griselda Bonilla, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A32, 051508 (2014).

 

506. “Gas-assisted annular microsprayer for sample preparation for time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy”, Zonghuan Lu, David Barnard, Tanvir R Shaikh, Xing Meng, Carmen A Mannella, Aymen S Yassin, Rajendra K Agrawal, Terence Wagenknecht, and Toh-Ming Lu, J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 115001 (2014).

 

507. “Effects of nanoscale surface roughness on the resistivity of ultrathin epitaxial copper films”, Yukta P Timalsina, Andrew Horning,

Robert F Spivey, Kim M Lewis,Tung-Sheng Kuan, Gwo-Ching Wang and Toh-Ming Lu, Nanotechnology 26, 075704 (2015).

 

508. “Biaxially oriented CdTe films on glass substrate through nanostructured Ge/CaF2 buffer layers”, RJ Lord, P-Y Su, I Bhat, S B Zhang,

T-M Lu and G-C Wang, Mater. Res. Express 2, 095017 (2015).

 

509. “Single-Crystal CdTe Homojunction Structures for Solar Cell Applications”, P-Y. Su, R. Dahal, G.-C. Wang, SB Zhang, T.-M. Lu, and I.

Bhat, Journal of Electronic Materials 44, 3118 (2015).

 

510. “Defect-Induced Photoluminescence in Monolayer Semiconducting Transition Metal Dichalcogenides”, Philippe K. Chow,

Robin B. Jacobs-Gedrim, Jian Gao, Toh-Ming Lu, Bin Yu, Humberto Terrones, and Nikhil Koratkar, ACS Nano 9, 1520 (2015).

 

511. “Experimental study of electron-phonon coupling and electron internal thermalization in epitaxially grown ultrathin copper films”,

Xiaohan Shen, Yukta P. Timalsina, Toh-Ming Lu, and Masashi Yamaguchi, Phys. Rev. B 91, 045129 (2015).

 

512. “A simple growth method for Nb2O5 films and their optical properties”, J. K. Dash, L. Chen, Peter H. Dinolfo, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang,

RSC Advances 5, 36129 (2015).

 

513. “A method toward fabricating semiconductor 3R-NbS2 ultrathin films”, J. K. Dash, L. Chen, Peter H. Dinolfo*, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang,

The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119, 19763 (2015).

 

514. "Structural Dynamics of Ribosome Subunit Association Studied by Mixing-Spraying Time-Resolved Cryogenic Electron Microscopy",

Bo Chen, Sandip Kaledhonkar, Ming Sun, Bingxin Shen, Zonghuan Lu, David Barnard, Toh-Ming Lu, Ruben L. Gonzalez Jr., Joachim Frank,

Structure 23, Issue 6, 1097–11052 (2015).

 

515. “Charge Transport Model to Predict Intrinsic Reliability for Dielectric Materials”, Sean P. Ogden, Juan Borja, Joel L. Plawsky, T.-M. Lu,

Kong Boon Yeap, and William N. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 118, 124101 (2015).

 

516. “Time Invariant Surface Roughness Evolution during Atmospheric Pressure Thin Film Depositions”, Thomas Merkh, Robert Spivey, and

Toh-Ming Lu, Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing group), Scientific Reports 6, 19888 (2016).

 

517. “Slow oxidation kinetics in an epitaxial copper(100) film”, Yukta P. Timalsina, Morris Washington, Gwo-Ching Wang, Toh-Ming Lu,

Appl. Surf. Sci. 363, 209-216 (2016).

 

518. “Band gap engineering of a soft inorganic compound PbI2 by incommensurate van der Waals epitaxy”, Yiping Wang, Yi-Yang Sun,

Shengbai Zhang, Toh-Ming Lu, and Jian Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 013105 (2016).

 

519. “Aging of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers”, J. Gao, B. Li, J. Tan, P. Chow, L. Li, T. M. Lu and N. Koratkar,

ACS Nano, 2016, 10, 2628-2635.

 

520. “Vertically Oriented ReS2 Nanosheets in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries and for Hydrogen Evolution”, J. Gao, L. Li, J. Tan, H. Sun. B. Li, J.

Idrobo, C. Singh, T.-M. Lu and N. Koratkar, Nano Lett. 2016, 16, 3780-3787. (May 2016 Top 2 most read article).

 

521. “Transition Metal Doping in Synthetic Atomically-thin Semiconductors”,  J. Gao, Y. Kim, L. Liang, J. Idrobo, P. Chow, J. Tan, B. Li, L.

Li, B. Sumpter, T.-M. Lu, V. Meunier, J. Hone and N. Koratkar. Adv. Mater.2016, 10, 1002.

 

522. “Humidity Sensing Using Vertically Oriented ReS2 Nanosheets Deposited on an Interdigitated Gold Electrode”, A. Yang, J. Gao, B. Li,

J. Tan, Y. Xiang, J. Idrobo, T.-M. Lu, M. Rong, Jiawei Tan, Yu Xiang, Tushar Gupta, Lu Li, Shravan Suresh, and Nikhil Koratkar, 2D Mater. 3 (2016) 045012.

 

523. “Resistivity of Epitaxial Copper Nanolines with Trapezoidal Cross-section”, Zonghuan Lu, David M. Frey, Thomas Merkh, Robert Lord,

Morris A. Washington, and Toh-Ming Lu, Thin Solid Films, Thin Solid Films 599, 187 (2016).

 

524. “Large single crystal SnS2 flakes synthesized on amorphous SiO2 from co-evaporation of Sn and S”, Y.-B. Yang, J. K. Dash, A. J.

Littlejohn, Y. Xiang, Y. Wang, J. Shi, L.H. Zhang,  K. Kisslinger, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Crystal Growth and Design 16(2), 961-973

(2016).

 

525. “Modular approach for metal-semiconductor heterostructures with very-large interface lattice misfit: A first-principles perspective”,

Weiyu Xie, Michael Lucking, Liang Chen, Ishwara Bhat, Gwo-Ching Wang, Toh-Ming Lu, and Shengbai Zhang

Crystal Growth and Design 16, 2328−2334 (2016).

 

526. “Heteroepitaxy of large grain Ge film on cube-textured Ni(001) foils through CaF2 buffer layer”, Liang Chen, Weiyu Xie, Gwo-Ching

Wang, Ishwara Bhat, Shengbai Zhang, Amit Goyal, Toh-Ming Lu, Thin Solid Films, 603, 428-434 (2016).

 

527. “Orientation epitaxy of Ge1-xSnx films grown on single crystal CaF2 substrates”, J. Littlejohn, T.-M. Lu, L. H. Zhang, K. Kisslinger, and

G.-C. Wang, CrystEngComm 18, 2757 – 2769 (2016).

 

528. “Tuning the Phase and Optical Properties of Ultrathin SnSx Films”, Y.-B. Yang, J. K. Dash, Y. Xiang, Y. Wang, J. Shi, P.H. Dinolfo, T.-M.

 Lu, and G.-C. Wang, J. Phys. Chem. C 120 (24), pp 13199–13214 (2016).

 

529. “Heteroepitaxy of Ge on Cube-Textured Ni(001) Foils Through CaF2 Buffer Layer”, L. Chen, Z.-H. Lu, T.-M. Lu, I. Bhat, S.B. Zhang, A.

Goyal, L.H. Zhang, K. Kisslinger, and G.-C. Wang, MRS Advances Published online. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/adv.2016.517.

 

530. “van der Waals epitaxy of CdTe thin film on graphene”, Dibyajyoti Mohanty, Weiyu Xie, Yiping Wang, Zonghuan Lu, Jian Shi, Shengbai

Zhang, Gwo-Ching Wang, Toh-Ming Lu and Ishwara B. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 143109 (2016).

 

531. “Effect of CdCl2 heat treatment on ZnTe back electron reflector layer in thin film CdTe solar cells”, Dibyajyoti Mohantya, Peng-Yu Su,

Gwo-Ching Wang, Toh-Ming Lu, Ishwara B. Bhat, Solar Energy, 135, 209-214 (2016).

 

532. “Reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements of 2D materials reciprocal space structure”, Y Xiang, F-W Guo, T-M Lu, and

G-C Wang, Nanotechnology 27, 485703 (8 pp) (2016).

 

533. “Photon Transport in One-Dimensional Incommensurately Epitaxial CsPbX3 Arrays", Wang, Yiping; Sun, Xin; Shivanna, Ravichandran;

Yang, Yunbo; Chen, Zhizhong; Guo, Yuwei; Wang, Gwo-Ching; Wertz, Esther; Deschler, Felix; Cai, Zhonghou; Zhou, Hua; Lu,

Toh-Ming; Shi, Jian, Nano letters 16 (12), pp 7974–7981 (2016).

 

534. “Nonlinear Electron-Lattice Interactions in a Wurtzite Semiconductor Enabled via Strongly Correlated Oxide”,  Wang, Y., Seewald, L.,

Sun, Y.-Y., Keblinski, P., Sun, X., Zhang, S., Lu, T.-M., Johnson, J. M., Hwang, J. and Shi, J. (2016), Adv. Mater., 28: 8975–8982.

 

535. “Electron transport and dielectric breakdown in silicon nitride using a charge transport model”,  Ogden, S. P., Lu, T. M., & Plawsky, J. L., Applied Physics Letters, 109(15), 152904 (2016).

 

536. “Surface and interface of epitaxial CdTe film on CdS buffered van der Waals mica substrate”,

Y.-B. Yang, L. Seewald, Dibyajyoti Mohanty, Y. Wang, L.H. Zhang, K. Kisslinger, Weiyu Xie, J. Shi, I. Bhat, Shengbai Zhang, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 413, 219 – 232 (2017).

 

537. “Naturally formed ultrathin V2O5 heteroepitaxial layer on VO2/Sapphire(001) film”,

Aaron J. Littlejohn,Yunbo Yang, Zonghuan Lu, Eunsung Shin, KuanChang Pan, Guru Subramanyam, Vladimir Vasilyev,  Kevin Leedy, Tony Quach,c Toh-Ming Lua and Gwo-Ching Wang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 419, 365 -372 (2017).

 

538. “Revealing the Crystalline Integrity of Wafer Scale Graphene on SiO2/Si: An Azimuthal RHEED Approach”,

Zonghuan Lu, Xin Sun, Yu Xiang, Morris Washington, Gwo-Ching Wang, and Toh-Ming Lu, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9, 23081 – 23091 (2017).

 

539. “A two-step dry process for Cs2SnI6 perovskite thin film”,

Fawen Guo, Zonghuan Lu, Dibyajyoti Mohanty, Tianmeng Wang, Ishwara B. Bhat, Shengbai Zhang, Sufei Shi, Morris A. Washington, Gwo- Ching,Wang  and Toh-Ming Lu, Mat. Res. Lett. 5 (8), 540–546 (2017).

 

540. “Enhanced van der Waals epitaxy via electron transfer-enabled interfacial dative bond formation”, Weiyu Xie, Toh-Ming Lu, G.-C. Wang and Shengbai Zhang, Phys. Rev. Materials 1, 063402 (2017).

 

541. “van der Waals epitaxy of Ge films on mica”, A. J. Littlejohn, Y. Xiang, E. Rauch, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang

J. of Applied Physics 122 (18):185305 (2017).

 

542. “Method to determine the root cause of low-κ SiCOH dielectric failure distributions”. Ogden, S. P., Yeap, K. B., Shen, T., Justison, P., Lu,

T. M., & Plawsky, J. L., IEEE Electron Device Letters, 38(1), 1 (2017).

 

543. “van der Waals epitaxy of CdS thin films on single-crystalline graphene”,

Xin Sun, Zonghuan Lu, Weiyu Xie, Yiping Wang, Jian Shi, Shengbai Zhang, Morris A. Washington, and Toh-Ming

Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 153104 (2017).

 

544. “Decoupling interface effect on the phase stability of CdS thin films by van der Waals Heteroepitaxy”,

Xin Sun, Yiping Wang, Lucas J. Seewald, Zhizhong Chen, Jian Shi, Morris A. Washington, and Toh-Ming Lu,

Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 041602 (2017).

 

545.  “Protecting Silicon-Film Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Atomically-Thin Graphene Drape”, S. Suresh, Z. P. Wu, S. F. Bartolucci, S. Basu, R. Mukherjee, T. Gupta, P. Hundekar, Y. Shi, T.-M. Lu, N. Koratkar, ACS Nano 11, 5051-5061 (2017).

 

546. “Probing the interface strain in a 3D-2D van der Waals heterostructure”, Sun X, Shi J, Washington M A, Lu T-M. Appl. Phys. Lett.  111,

151603 (2017).

 

547. “A review on low dimensional metal halides: Vapor phase epitaxy and physical properties”, ‎ Hu Y, Guo Y, Wang Y, Chen Z, Sun X, Feng J, Lu T M, Wertz E and Shi J., J. Mater. Res.  32, 3992 (2017).

 

548. “van der Waals Hybrid Perovskite of High Optical Quality by Chemical Vapor Deposition”, Chen Z, Wang Y, Sun X, Guo Y, Hu Y, Wertz E, Wang X, Gao H, Lu T M and Shi J.,  ‎Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700373 (2017).

 

549. “High-Temperature Ionic Epitaxy of Halide Perovskite Thin Film and the Hidden Carrier Dynamics”,  Wang Y, Sun X, Chen Z, Sun Y Y, Zhang S, Lu T-M, Wertz E, and Shi J., Adv. Mater.  29, 1702643 (2017).

 

550. “Epitaxial Halide Perovskite Lateral Double Heterostructure”, Wang Y, Chen Z, Deschler F, Sun X, Lu T-M, Wertz A E, Hu J-M, Shi J., 

ACS Nano 11, 3355 (2017).

 

551. “Method to determine the root cause of low-κ SiCOH dielectric failure distributions”. Ogden, S. P., Yeap, K. B., Shen, T., Justison, P., Lu,

T. M., & Plawsky, J. L., IEEE Electron Device Letters, 38(1), 1 (2018).

 

552.  “Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit”, Michael C. Lucking, Weiyu Xie, Duk-Hyun Choe, Damien West, Toh-Ming Lu, and S. B. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 086101 (2018).

 

553. “Single-Crystal Graphene-Directed van der Waals Epitaxial Resistive Switching”, Xin Sun, Zonghuan Lu, Zhizhong Chen, Yiping Wang, Jian Shi, Morris Washington, and Toh-Ming Lu, ACS applied materials & interfaces 10, 6730-6736 (2018).

 

554. “Van der Waals epitaxy of SnS film on single crystal graphene buffer layer on amorphous SiO/Si”, Yu Xiang, Yunbo Yang, Fawen Guo, Xin Sun, Zonghuan Lu, Dibyajyoti Mohanty, Ishwara Bhat, Morris Washington, Toh-Ming Lu, Gwo-Ching Wang, Applied Surface Science 435, 759–768 (2018). 

 

555. “van der Waals epitaxy of antimony islands, sheets, and thin films on single-crystalline graphene”, Xin Sun, Zonghuan Lu, Yu Xiang, Yiping Wang, Jian Shi, Gwo-Ching Wang, Morris Washington, Toh-Ming Lu, ACS Nano 12, 6100 – 6108 (2018).

 

556. “Remote epitaxy of copper on sapphire through monolayer graphene buffer”, Zonghuan Lu, Xin Sun, Weiyu Xie, Aaron Littlejohn, Gwo-Ching Wang, Shengbai Zhang, Morris Washington, and Toh-Ming Lu, Nanotechnology 29, 445702 (2018).

 

557. “Remote Phononic Effects in Epitaxial Ruddlesden-Popper Halide Perovskites”, Zhizhong Chen, Yiping Wang, Xin Sun, Yu Xiang, Yang Hu, Yi-Yang Sun, Gwo-Ching Wang, Toh-Ming Lu, Esther Wertz, Jian Shi, The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 9, 6676–668 (2018).

 

558. “Metal organic chemical vapor epitaxy of large size CdTe grains on mica through chemical and van der Waals interactions”, Mohanty, Dibyajyoti; Lu, Zonghuan; Sun, Xin; Xiang, Yu; Wang, Yiping; Ghoshal, Debjit; Shi, Jian; Gao, Lei; Shi, Sufei; Washington, Morris; Wang, Gwo-Ching; Lu, Toh-Ming; Bhat, Ishwara, Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 113402 (2018).

 

559. “Analyses of orientational superlattice domains in epitaxial ZnTe thin films grown on graphene and mica”, Mohanty, Dibyajyoti; Sun, Xin; Lu, Zonghuan; Washington, Morris; Wang, Gwo-Ching; Lu, Toh-Ming; Bhat, Ishwara ,J. of Appl. Phys. 124, 175301 (2018).

 

560. “van der Waals epitaxial ZnTe thin film on single-crystalline graphene”, Xin Sun, Zhizhong Chen, Yiping Wang, Zonghuan Lu, Jian Shi, Morris Washington, Toh-Ming Lu, Journal of Applied Physics, 123(2), pp 025303, 2018.

 

561. “Defects-engineered epitaxial VO2 ± δ in strain engineering of heterogeneous soft crystals”, Yiping Wang, Xin Sun, Zhonghou Cai, Hua Zhou, Toh-Ming Lu, Jian Shi,  Science Advances, 4(5), pp eaar3679, 2018.

 

562. “Quasi van der Waals epitaxy of copper thin film on single-crystal graphene monolayer buffer”, Zonghuan Lu, Xin Sun, Morris Washington, Toh-Ming Lu, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 51, pp 095301, 2018.

 

563. “Utilizing van der Waals Slippery Interfaces to Enhance the Electrochemical Stability of Silicon Film Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries”, Swastik Basu, Shravan Suresh, Kamalika Ghatak, Stephen F. Bartolucci, Tushar Gupta, Prateek Hundekar, Rajesh Kumar, Toh-Ming Lu, Dibakar Datta, Yunfeng Shi, and Nikhil Koratkar, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 13442−13451 (2018).

 

564. “Theoretical and Experimental Insight into the Mechanism for Spontaneous Vertical Growth of ReS2 Nanosheets”, Debjit Ghoshal, Anthony Yoshimura, Tushar Gupta, Andrew House, Swastik Basu, Yanwen Chen, Tianmeng Wang, Yang Yang, Wenjia Shou, Jordan A Hachtel, Juan Carlos Idrobo, TohMing Lu, Sagnik Basuray, Vincent Meunier, SuFei Shi*, Nikhil Koratkar*Advanced Functional Materials 28, 1801286 (2018).

 

565. “Charge transport model to predict dielectric breakdown as a function of voltage, temperature, and thickness”, Sean P. Ogden, Yueming Xu, Kong Boon Yeap, Tian Shen, Toh-Ming Lu, Joel L. Plawsky, Microelectronics Reliability 91, 232 (2018).

 

566. “Scaling behavior of columnar structure during physical vapor deposition”, W. J. Meese and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 123, 075302 (2018).

 

567. ”Coherent Phonon Transport Measurement and Controlled Acoustic Excitations Using Tunable Acoustic Phonon Source in GHzsub THz Range with Variable Bandwidth”, Xiaohan Shen, Zonghuan Lu, Yukta P. Timalsina, Toh-Ming Lu, Morris Washington1 & Masashi Yamaguchi, Scientific Reports  8, 7054 (2018).

 

568. “Large Metallic Vanadium Disulfide Ultrathin Flakes for Spintronic Circuits and Quantum Computing Devices”, Littlejohn, Li Z, Lu Z, Sun X, Nawarat P, Wang Y, Li Y, Wang T, Chen Y, Zhang L, Li H, Kisslinger K, Shi S, Shi J, Raeliarijaona A, Shi W, Terrones H, Lewis KM, Washington M, Lu TM, Wang GC. ACS Appl. Nano Mater., 2019, 2, 3684

 

569. “Carrier lifetime enhancement in halide perovskite via remote epitaxy”, Jiang J, Sun X, Chen X, Wang B, Chen Z, Hu Y, Guo G, Zhang L, Ma Y, Gao L, Zheng F, Jin L, Chen M, Ma Z, Zhou Y, Padture NP, Beach K, Terrones H, Shi Y, Gall D, Lu TM, Wertz E, Feng J, Shi J. Nat. Commun. 2019, 10, 4145.

 

570. “Growth of epitaxial CdTe thin films on amorphous substrates using single crystal graphene buffer”, Dibyajyoti Mohanty , Zonghuan Lu, Xin Sun, Yu Xiang, Lei Gao, Jian Shi,Lihua Zhang, Kim Kisslinger, Morris A. Washington, Gwo-Ching Wang ,

Toh-Ming Lu, Ishwara B. Bhat. Carbon 144 (2019) 519-524

 

571. “Comparative study on the antioxidation behaviors of polycrystalline multilayer and single-crystalline monolayer graphene”, Xin Sun, Zonghuan Lu, Tushar Gupta, Swastik Basu, Nikhil Koratkar, Morris Washington, Toh-Ming Lu, 2D Materials, 6, pp 015020 (2019).

 

572. “Tutorial: Strain measurement of ultrathin epitaxial films using electron diffraction techniques”,  G.-C. Wang and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys. 125, 082401 (2019).

 

573. “Chemical reaction induced carrier localization in nanometer-thin Al/Ru, Al/Co,and Al/Mo superlattices”,Yanli Zhang, Gwo-Ching Wang, Toh-Ming Lu and Tung-Sheng Kuan. Nanotechnology 31 (2020) 035001 (12pp)

 

578. “Large scale epitaxial graphite grown on twin free nickel(111)/spinel substrate”,

Zonghuan Lu,  Xin Sun, Yu Xiang, Gwo-Ching Wang, Morris A. Washington and Toh-Ming Lu, CrystEngComm, 2020, 22, 119-129