NamePhilip I 'The Fair' King of France
Birthbef 23 May 1052, Reims, Marne, France
Death29 Jul 1108, Melun, Seine-et-Marne, France
BurialSt-Benoit-sur-Lo, Loiret, France
FatherHenry I King of France (1008-1060)
MotherAnne of Kiev (~1024->1075)
Misc. Notes
King of France (1059/60-1108) who came to the throne at a time when the Capetian monarchy was extremely weak but who succeeded in enlarging the royal treasury by a policy of devious alliances, the sale of his neutrality in the quarrels of powerful vassals, and the practice of simony on a huge scale.

Philip was the elder son of Henry I of France by his second wife, Anne of Kiev. Crowned at Reims in May 1059, he became sole king on his father's death in 1060. Two years after he came of age in 1066, he obtained the county of Gâtinais as the price of his neutrality in a family struggle over Anjou and thereby linked the royal possessions in Sens with those around Paris, Melun, and Orléans. His major efforts, however, were directed toward Normandy, in which from 1076 he supported Robert II Curthose, its ineffectual duke, first against Robert's father, King William I of England, then against Robert's brother, William II. Philip's true goal was to prevent emergence of a rival power in Normandy, for he was willing to abandon Robert whenever it seemed possible he might become dangerous.

Because of his firm determination to retain control over all appointments to ecclesiastical posts, which he blatantly sold, Philip was eventually drawn into conflict with the papacy. This conflict was exacerbated by his matrimonial affairs; his scandalous "marriage" with Bertrada de Montfort, wife of a vassal, brought him repeated excommunication. By 1104, when the struggle with the papacy was finally ended, Louis VI, Philip's son by his legitimate wife, Bertha, had taken over the administration of the kingdom, Philip having been rendered inactive by his extreme obesity.

Philip came to the throne at age 8; he had been crowned at Reims 05-23-1059; his minority ended in the stormy year of 1066
- "In the long reign that followed he showed no great ability or energy, and a looseness of morals which embroiled him with
the Church. ...His reign is chiefly remarkable for the steady growth of the royal domain." {-Encycl.Brit.,`56, 17:716-7.}
"Short, fat and rarely in good health, he had lost his hair on the Third Crusade; moreover, he tended to be a hypochondriac. ...he was nonetheless a most capable ruler. ...He increased the possessions of the monarchy fourfold, defeated John's ally Otto IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, at Bouvines, and brought about the collapse of the Plantagenet dominions. Under him,
France was administered effectively by local officials and Paris became a great capital. Philip married three times. He found his second wife, Ingeborg of Denmark, unsatisfactory after only one night of marriage, and his repudiation of her and subsequent nuptials with Agnes of Meran led to considerable papal hostility and his excommunication. In 1213, after the birth of his grandson, he took Ingeborg back as his wife." {-"The Plantagenet Chronicles," Elizabeth Hallam, ed., 1986, p.
205.} Philip is buried at Abbaye St-Benoit-sur-Loire.

Pope Urban receives an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus for aid against the Seljuk Turks. He proclaims the crusade
November 27 at the Synod of Clermont, and he excommunicates France's Philip I for adultery [and bigamy].

References: [Weis1],[RFC],[LDS-AF],[AR7],[ConverseA],[Talbot1], [Paget1],[ES]
Birth1055, Vlaardingen, Zuid Holland, Netherlands
Death1094, Montreuil-sur-Mer
MotherGertrude of Saxony (1030-1113)
ChildrenLouis VI (The Fat) (1081-1137)
 Constance (~1078-~1125)
Last Modified 18 Oct 1999Created 4 Sep 2012 using Reunion for Macintosh