NameHenry III Plantagenet King of England
Birth1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England
Death16 Nov 1272, Westminster, England
BurialWestminster Abbey, London, England
MotherIsabella of Angouleme (1188-1246)
Misc. Notes
In the 24 years (1234-58) during which he had effective control of the government, he displayed such indifference to tradition that the barons finally forced him to agree to a series of major reforms, the Provisions of Oxford (1258).

The elder son and heir of King John (ruled 1199-1216), Henry was nine years old when his father died. At that time London and much of eastern England were in the hands of rebel barons led by Prince Louis (later King Louis VIII of France), son of the French king Philip II Augustus. A council of regency presided over by the venerable William Marshal, 1st earl of Pembroke, was formed to rule for Henry; by 1217 the rebels had been defeated and Louis forced to withdraw from England. After Pembroke's death in 1219 Hubert de Burgh ran the government until he was dismissed by Henry in 1232. Two ambitious Frenchmen, Peter des Roches and Peter des Rivaux, then dominated Henry's regime until the barons brought about their expulsion in 1234. That event marked the beginning of Henry's personal rule.

Although Henry was charitable and cultured, he lacked the ability to rule effectively. In diplomatic and military affairs he proved to be arrogant yet cowardly, ambitious yet impractical. The breach between the King and his barons began as early as 1237, when the barons expressed outrage at the influence exercised over the government by Henry's Savoyard relatives. The marriage arranged (1238) by Henry between his sister, Eleanor, and his brilliant young French favourite, Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, increased foreign influence and further aroused the nobility's hostility. In 1242 Henry's Lusignan half brothers involved him in a costly and disastrous military venture in France. The barons then began to demand a voice in selecting Henry's counsellors, but the King repeatedly rejected their proposal. Finally, in 1254 Henry made a serious blunder. He concluded an agreement with Pope Innocent IV (pope 1243-54), offering to finance papal wars in Sicily if the Pope would grant his infant son, Edmund, the Sicilian crown. Four years later Pope Alexander IV (pope 1254-61) threatened to excommunicate Henry for failing to meet this financial obligation. Henry appealed to the barons for funds, but they agreed to cooperate only if he would accept far-reaching reforms. These measures, the Provisions of Oxford, provided for the creation of a 15-member privy council, selected (indirectly) by the barons, to advise the King and oversee the entire administration. The barons, however, soon quarrelled among themselves, and Henry seized the opportunity to renounce the Provisions (1261). In April 1264 Montfort, who had emerged as Henry's major baronial opponent, raised a rebellion; the following month he defeated and captured the King and his eldest son, Edward, at the Battle of Lewes (May 14, 1264), Sussex. Montfort ruled England in Henry's name until he was defeated and killed by Edward at the Battle of Evesham, Worcestershire, in August 1265. Henry, weak and senile, then allowed Edward to take charge of the government. After the King's death, Edward ascended the throne as King Edward I.

"Henry III, who ruled for 56 years, grew into a pious, gentle man, a patron of the religious arts, shrewd rather than subtle, imbued with concern for the image of the monarchy, but, even as an adult, unable to transmute that concern into the effective political action which was essential to successful medieval kingship. Like his father, he found it hard to gain or keep the trust
of his barons, and, also like his father, became involved in bitter conflict with them. His problems were compounded by the English failure to recapture the lost Plantagenet dominions, despite immense financial outlay." {-"The Plantagenet Chronicles," Elizabeth Hallam (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1986, p. 323.)} His story is well told in the popular historical novel by Thomas B. Costain, "The Magnificent Century" (Doubleday & Co., 1951).

Reigned 1216-1272. A minor when he took the throne he did not take the reigns
of Government himself until 1234. Baronian discontent simmered, boiling over
in 1258 when Henry facing financial disaster attempted to raise large sums
from his magnates. Reforms were agreed upon but then renouced by Henry.
de Montford lead a rebellion against the King (the Barons Wars) which was
defeated after initial success, thereafter Hnery ceeded much of his power to
his son. Burke say he was born 10 Oct 1206 and married 14 Jan, crowned 1216.

References: [Weis1],[AR7]
Birth1217, Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-Du-Rhone, France
Death24 Jun 1291, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England
BurialConvent Church, Amesbury
MotherBeatrice of Savoy (~1200-1266)
Marriage24 Jan 1237, Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent
ChildrenEdward I (Longshanks) (1239-1307)
 Edmund "Crouchback" (1245-1296)
Last Modified 12 Dec 1999Created 4 Sep 2012 using Reunion for Macintosh