EARTH MATERIALS (ERTH 2330)
fall term, 2019
|general description and expectations||
Meeting time: lecture -- TF 12:00-1:50
lab -- T 2:00-3:50
Place: Science Center 3W13
(lab locations will vary)
Instructor: Prof. E.B. Watson
Office: 1C31 J-ROWL
office hours by appointment
TA: Todd Knobbe
Office: 2W14 J-ROWL
office hours: M 2:00-3:00
*Alternate times can be arranged by appointment if you are unable to attend office hours.
GENERAL COURSE DESCRIPTION
Overview of the chemical and physical properties of the material constituents of the Earth and terrestrial planets, including minerals, rocks, lavas, and supercritical water. Topics include mineral structure and composition, bonding, optical properties, x-ray diffraction, phase transformations, and surface properties. The role of minerals in the man-made environment is also discussed as appropriate.
Expected and useful background
There are no mandatory prerequisites for this course, but students who have taken introductory chemistry and/or geology will be familiar with some of the concepts discussed, and will find the going easier. Some background in geology is assumed, and competence in basic chemistry is expected (some review will be provided where appropriate). The course is not mathematically intensive, but an appreciation of the fundamentals of calculus is important.
Specific topics covered (not necessarily in order listed)
properties of solids in historical and modern context
symmetry in relation to crystal morphology
symmetry in relation to atomic structure
nature of the atom; ionization; interatomic forces and bonding
energy of crystals and crystal aggregates
physical properties of minerals; anisotropy
effects of pressure and temperature on mineral stability; equation of state
mineral chemistry and its relation to mineral structure and stability
descriptive mineralogy of rock-forming minerals; mineral associations
optical properties; minerals in thin section
nature of mineral surfaces; surface- and interfacial energy
mineral solubility; processes and properties of the mineral/water interface
pressure-volume-temperature relation of H2O in the Earth
Students who complete this course will have: 1) an understanding of the relation between atomic structure and properties of naturally-occurring solids and fluids; 2) an appreciation for the physicochemical principles that govern the composition and occurrence of these materials and how they interact; and 3) the ability to recognize the major rock-forming minerals in the laboratory and in the field, and to develop reasonable hypotheses concerning their formation.
Minerals: Their Constitution and Origin by H.-R. Wenk and A. Bulakh. We will not follow this text exactly on a week-by-week basis, but having access to a copy will be useful for reviewing concepts introduced in class, as well as for supplementary reading.
EXAMS and GRADING
There will be three (3) exams during the semester devoted to the material presented in the lectures: September 27, October 25 and December 10 (see calendar). The last exam will focus on material from the final third of the course, but will include extra-credit questions drawn from the entire semester. The total weight of the three exams will be 75% of the final course grade, with the lowest score devalued to 15% (the other two exams will count 30% each toward the final grade). A portion of each exam will focus on mineral identification and chemical composition (see below). The remaining 25% of your grade will come from homework assignments and lab exercises.
Grades can be appealed in person or in writing, initially to the to the individual who graded the exam or homework exercise in question (usually the TA). Prof. Watson will make final decisions on specific irresolvable issues related to grading. Please see the 'late homework' policy below.
MINERAL IDENTIFICATION COMPETENCE
In order to realize course outcome no. 3 (see above), it will be essential for students to devote an appreciable amount of time to learning a key set of 30-40 rock-forming minerals. "Learning" in this context means acquiring the ability to: 1) use recognizable properties of minerals to distinguish among them in hand specimen and under the microscope; and 2) associate chemical composition with mineral names. To a great extent, this skill can be acquired only through self-study, for which ample lab time will be set aside. Mineral ID questions will be included in the exams (see above and calendar).
HOMEWORK GRADING and LATE POLICY
Labs write-ups and homework are worth 25% of the total class grade. Of that, 15% will be lab assignments and 10% will be homework assignments. Each individual assignment will be given a total point score based on the amount of work required for the assignment (i.e., shorter assignments will receive fewer points). Material will be returned within a week.
Due dates for
homework and labs will be given on the assignments, and work will generally be
due one week after it is assigned. The late policy for labs and homework is as
1) Deadlines are all final -- i.e., no extensions granted without prior approval based on a reasonable explanation.
2) Printed/handwritten assignments are due in the lab period/class period of their deadline. Electronic submissions are acceptable until 5 p.m. on the due date. Please email to email@example.com .
3) Unexcused late assignments will be docked 10% for each 24 hr period after the deadline; late assignments will not be accepted beyond 5 days after the due date.
ATTENDANCE POLICY and CLASSROOM ETIQUETTE
Regular attendance and participation in class and labs are essential for students to gain adequate grasp of the course content. Frequent absences from class without explanation will be noted and investigated. While in class (and while taking exams), students are expected to refrain from use of smart phones, tablets and laptop computers.
STATEMENT REGARDING ACADEMIC INTEGRITY
Good student-teacher relationships are built on trust. Students should have confidence that we have made appropriate decisions about the structure and content of this course, and that we will make a strong effort to accommodate the varying needs of a diverse group of students. Teachers, in turn, must have confidence that the assignments and exams you turn in represent your own work.
The Rensselaer Handbook defines various forms of Academic Dishonesty and procedures for responding to them. All forms are violations of the trust between students and teachers. Students should familiarize themselves with the appropriate portion of the Rensselaer Handbook and note that the penalties for plagiarism and other forms of cheating can be quite harsh.
COURSE DETAILS for 2019
The syllabus below is a reasonable estimate of how the course will develop over the term. Deviations may arise if additional time is needed on specific topics.
Aug. 30 Overview of Earth; States of Matter (and of Earth Materials); Mineral evolution
Sept. 6 Nature of the Atom (review)
10 Ionization; Ionic Radii
(lab: Getting oriented with hand-sample ID)
13 Bonding I: The ionic model
17 Bonding II: deviations from ionic character
(lab: x rays and crystals; x-ray diffraction)
20 Symmetry and bonding
24 Structure of crystals I: packing of atoms; space lattices
(lab: Review for exam)
27 EXAM 1
Oct. 1 Structure of crystals II: Pauling’s rules
(lab: Raman spectroscopy)
4 Polymorphism; structural transformations
8 Crystal growth
(lab/recitation: the electron microprobe)
11 Defects in crystals
15 Rock-forming minerals I
(lab: laser-ablation mass spectrometry)
18 Rock-forming minerals II
22 Rock-forming minerals III
(lab: Review for exam)
25 EXAM 2
29 Mineral aggregates (rocks I)
(lab: optical properties)
Nov. 1 Mineral aggregates (rocks II)
5 Free energy and phase diagrams
(practical aspects of working with phase diagrams)
8 Origin and evolution of magmas
12 Properties of water on and in the Earth (“normal” to supercritical)
(lab/recitation: working with phase diagrams)
15 Solubility of minerals in water
19 Properties of Earth and Planetary fluids
(lab/recitation: Working with phase diagrams involving H2O)
22 Mineral surfaces; mineral/water interface
26 Clay minerals; zeolites; biominerals
(lab/recitation: Ore minerals; accessory minerals; opaque oxides)
Dec. 3 Economic mineralogy and mineral resources 1
6 Economic mineralogy and mineral resources 2
10 EXAM 3
Class meeting calendar
HANDOUTS for LECTURES
To get the class handouts for the date you want, click on the appropriate PDF icon to obtain file you can print or download...
HOMEWORK, in-class EXERCISES, OLD EXAMS
Homework 1 (due 9/20) Homework 2 (due 10/8) OLD EXAM 1 Homework 3 (due 10/22) OLD EXAM 2 Homework 4 (due 11/22)
OLD EXAM 3
week 1: Chapter 2 of text.
week 2: Chapter 3 of text.
Suggested reading in text to supplement lecture notes (by topic)
X-rays and crystals: chapter 7 (this provides a more in-depth treatment than we need)
Crystal structures, symmetry, unit cell, Bravais lattices: chapter 3
Miller indices: pp. 44-49
Crystal nucleation and growth: pp. 84-92 (not as detailed as lecture notes)
Electron microprobe: pp. 231-232
Vibrational spectroscopy: pp. 233-239
Polymorphism and isomorphism: chapter 6 (similar to lecture notes); see also chapter 18 on solid solutions
Mineral genesis: chapters 16&17 (but we didn't go into as much depth in thermodynamics as the text does)
Water in Earth: This topic is not treated in the text
Optical properties of minerals: chapter 9
Physical properties: chapter 8 (but we de-emphasized matrix algebra in class)
Feldspars: chapter 19
Pyroxenes & amphiboles: chapter 28
Sheet silicates: chapter 27 (see also health aspects in chapter 32)
Carbonates & halides: chapters 21 & 22
Accessory minerals: parts of chapters 23 & 26, but mostly not covered in text
Oxides: chapter 25
Mineral resources: chapter 30