NameLouis VII (The Younger) King of France
Birth1120, Fontainebleu, France
Death18 Sep 1180, Paris
Byname LOUIS THE YOUNGER, French LOUIS LE JEUNE, Capetian king of France who pursued a long rivalry, marked by recurrent warfare and continuous intrigue, with Henry II of England.
In 1131 Louis was anointed as successor to his father, Louis VI, and in 1137 he became the sole ruler at his father's death. Louis married Eleanor, daughter of William X, duke of Aquitaine, in 1137, a few days before his effective rule began, and he thus temporarily extended the Capetian lands to the Pyrenees. Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestige of the kingship through an administrative government based on trustworthy men of humble origin and by consolidating his rule over his royal domains rather than by adding new acquisitions. From 1141 to 1143 he was involved in a fruitless conflict with Count Thibaut of Champagne and the papacy. But thereafter his relations with the popes were good; Alexander II, whom he supported against Frederick Barbarossa, took refuge in France. But the major threat to his reign came from Geoffrey, count of Anjou and, briefly, of Normandy, and Geoffrey's son Henry, who later (1154) became King Henry II of England as well as ruler of both Anjou and Normandy. After Louis repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on March 21, 1152, she married Henry, who then took over control of Aquitaine. Ironically, this act was probably to Capetian advantage because Aquitaine might have drained the resources of Louis's kingdom while bringing him little revenue. After the death of Louis's second wife, he married Alix of Champagne, whose Carolingian blood brought added prestige to the monarchy (1160); their son became Philip II Augustus.
Louis might have defeated Henry if he had made concerted attacks rather than weak assaults on Normandy in 1152. Anglo-Norman family disputes saved Louis's kingdom from severe incursions during the many conflicts that Louis had with Henry between 1152 and 1174. Louis was helped by the quarrel (1164-70) between Henry and Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and a revolt (1173-74) of Henry's sons. Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, who acted as regent in 1147-49 while Louis was away on the Second Crusade, is the primary historian for Louis's reign.
Annointed king by Pope Innocent in 1131, he succeeded his father in 1137. He and Eleanor went on Crusade in 1148, and he reached Jerusalem while she remained in Antioch. ---- Compton's Encyclopedia (America Online, 1995) reports: Louis VII (born 1120, ruled 1137-80) was the eldest son of Louis VI. Shortly before his death, Louis VI arranged for his son's marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine. By this marriage southwest France was added to the domains of the new French king.
Unfortunately Louis, who was very religious and prone to be jealous, soon discovered that his beautiful queen was a capricious flirt. In 1147 Louis departed for the Holy Land on the Second Crusade, taking his queen with him. This Crusade was a miserable failure (see Crusades). After they returned, Louis had his marriage annulled in 1152. Eleanor at once sent an embassy to Henry, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, proposing marriage. Henry was overjoyed because the alliance
transferred to him the great duchy of Guienne. Two years later Henry and Eleanor were crowned king and queen of England (see Henry, Kings of England, "Henry II"). France thus lost a rich territory to England, its greatest rival.
Birth1140, Blois, Loir-et-Cher, France
Death4 Jun 1206, Paris
BurialAbbaye de Potigny
Birth1123, Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France
Death1 Apr 1204, Mirabell Castle, Fontevrault L'Ab, Maine-et-loire, France
BurialFontevrault L'Ab, Maine-et-loire, France
Marriage30 Jun 1137, Bordeaux