NameLothaire I Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy
Birth795, Altdorf, Bavaria
Death29 Sep 855, Pruem, Germany
BurialSt. Sauveur, France
MotherErmengarde of Hesbaye (~778-818)
Misc. Notes
Frankish emperor whose attempt to gain sole rule over the Frankish territories was checked by his brothers.

The eldest son of the emperor Louis I the Pious and a grandson of Charlemagne, Lothair was made King in Bavaria after Louis succeeded Charlemagne in 814, and in 817 he was made joint emperor. Under the Ordinatio imperii, a decree issued by Louis in 817 to provide for the unity of the empire after his death, Lothair's younger brothers, Pepin and Louis (later called the German), were to receive their own kingdoms, Aquitaine and Bavaria, but were to remain under the general suzerainty of Lothair.

Ruler in Italy from 822, Lothair was crowned emperor by Pope Paschal I in 823. He issued the Constitutio Romana (824), affirming imperial sovereignty over Rome and demanding an oath of fealty from the pope. When in 829 Louis I, under the influence of his second wife, Judith, revised the Ordinatio imperii to grant part of the empire previously granted to Lothair to his son by Judith, Charles (later called the Bald), Lothair broke with the imperial government. A palace revolution forced his reappointment as co-emperor in 830, but he was again deposed shortly afterward.

In 833 discontent with the rule of Louis the Pious ended in a revolt of the three elder sons, led by Lothair, and Lothair replaced the deposed Louis. Louis was restored to power the following year, however, and Lothair's rule was restricted to Italy.

When Pepin died in December 838, Louis I drew up a new partition scheme, dividing the empire, aside from Bavaria and neighbouring areas, which were left to Louis the German, between Lothair and Charles the Bald, with Lothair taking the eastern portion. Lothair was to have the title of emperor, but without the suzerainty over the other princes that had been granted by the Ordinatio imperii of 817.

On Louis I's death (840), Lothair again claimed his rights under the Ordinatio of 817, but his brothers, Louis the German and Charles the Bald, defeated him at the Battle of Fontenoy (841). The Treaty of Verdun (August 843) left Lothair the Middle Realm of the Frankish dominions, from the North Sea to Italy, while Louis received the eastern and Charles the western territory. The imperial title fell to Lothair.

After granting the government of Italy to his eldest son, Louis II, as early as 844, Lothair partitioned his realm between Louis (emperor from 850) and his two other sons, Lothair and Charles, in 855. Then he abdicated and became a monk.

Re: parentage, see Comments under ID778. Lothair I was Roman Emperor. He fell ill in 855, divided his lands between his three sons, and on Sept. 23 entered the monastery of Pruem where he died six days later. He was King of Italy, 817-55, and Emperor, 840-55.

References: [AR7]
Birthabt 800, Alsace, France
Death20 Mar 851
BurialErstein Abbey, Strasbourg
FatherHugh III Count of Tours (~765-836)
MotherBava (Ava) (~779->837)
Marriage15 Oct 821, Thionville, Moselle, France
 Louis II (823-855)
Last Modified 1 Jun 2001Created 4 Sep 2012 using Reunion for Macintosh