Spinella, Stephen; Ganesh, Manoj; Lo Re, Giada; Zhang, S.; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Dubois, Philippe; Gross, Richard A “Enzymatic reactive extrusion: moving towards continuous enzyme-catalyzed polyester polymerization and processing, Green Chemistry (2015) Advance Article

Spinella, Stephen; Lo Re, Giada; Liu, Bo; Dorgan, John; Habibi, Youssef; Leclère, Philippe; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Dubois, Philippe; Gross, Richard A “Polylactide/cellulose nanocrystal nanocomposites: Efficient routes for nanofiber modification and effects of nanofiber chemistry on PLA ReinforcementPolymer (2015) 65: 9-17.

Spinella, Stephen; Cai, Jiali; Samuel, Cedric; Zhu, Jianhui; McCallum, Scott A.; Habibi, Youssef; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Dubois, Philippe; Gross, Richard A. “Polylactide/poly(ω-hydroxytetradecanoic acid) reactive blending: a green renewable approach to improving polylactide propertiesBiomacromolecules (2015) 16(6), 1818-1826.

Todd, Richard; Tempelaar, Sarah; Lo Re, Giada; Spinella, Stephen; McCallum, Scott A.; Gross, Richard A.; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Dubois, Philippe Poly(ω-pentadecalactone)-b-poly(L-lactide) Block Copolymers via Organic-Catalyzed Ring Opening Polymerization and Potential Applications ACS Macro Letters (2015), 4(4), 408-41

Maiorana, Anthony; Spinella, Stephen M.; Gross, Richard A. "A Bio-Based Alternative to the Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A with Controlled Materials Properties", Biomacromolecules (2015), 1021-1031.

Peng, Yifeng; Totsingan, Filbert; Meier, Michael A. R.; Steinmann, Mark, Wurm, Frederik; Kho, Amanda; Gross, Richard A. “Sophorolipids: Expanding structural diversity by ring-opening cross-metathesisEuropean Journal of Lipid Science and Technology (2015) 117(2), 217-228.


Mao, Zhantong; Ganesh, Manoj; Bucaro, Michael; Smolianski, Igor; Gross, Richard A.; Lyons, Alan M. “High Throughput, High Resolution Enzymatic Lithography Process: Effect of Crystallite Size, Moisture, and Enzyme ConcentrationBiomacromolecules 15(12), 4627-4636 (2014).

Peng, Yifeng; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J.; Chen, Mingtao; Decatur, John; Hahn, Mariah; Gross, Richard A. “Poly(sophorolipid) Structural Variation: Effects on Biomaterial Physical and Biological PropertiesBiomacromolecules 15(11), 4214-4227 (2014).

Li, Geng; Wu, Jun; Qin, Xu; Zhu, Jianhui; Viswanathan, Kodandaraman; Dong, He; Somasundaran, P.; Gross, Richard A. “Chemo-enzymatic Routes to Lipopeptides and Their Colloidal PropertiesLangmuir, 30(23), 6889-6896 (2014).

Hu, Jing; Jin, Zhennan; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Polley, Jennifer D.; Cunningham, Michael F.; Gross, Richard A. “Anionic Polymerizable Surfactants from Biobased ω-Hydroxy Fatty AcidsMacromolecules 47(1), 113-120 (2014).


Ganesh, Manoj; Nachman, Jonathan; Mao, Zhantong; Lyons, Alan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Gross, Richard A. “Patterned Enzymatic Degradation of Poly(ε-caprolactone) by High-Affinity Microcontact Printing and Polymer Pen LithographyBiomacromolecules 14(8), 2470-2476 (2013).

Xie, Wenchun; Qin, Xu; Teraoka, Iwao; Gross, Richard A. “Comparison of retention behavior of oligolysine and oligoarginine in ion-pairing chromatography using heptafluorobutyric acidAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 405(30), 9739-9746 (2013).

Orski, Sara V.; Kundu, Santanu; Gross, Richard; Beers, Kathryn L. “Design and Implementation of Two-Dimensional Polymer Adsorption Models: Evaluating the Stability of Candida Antarctica Lipase B/Solid- Support Interfaces by QCM-DBiomacromolecules 14(2), 377-386 (2013).

Xie, Wenchun; Teraoka, Iwao; Gross, Richard A. “Reversed phase ion-pairing chromatography of an oligolysine mixture in different mobile phases: Effort of searching critical chromatography conditionsJournal of Chromatography A 1304, 127-132 (2013).

Celli, Annamaria; Marchese, Paola; Sullalti, Simone; Cai, Jiali; Gross, Richard A. “Aliphatic/aromatic copolyesters containing biobased ω-hydroxyfatty acids: Synthesis and structure-property relationshipsPolymer, 54(15), 3774-3783 (2013).

Peng, Yifeng; Decatur, John; Meier, Michael A. R. and Gross, Richard A. “Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of a Naturally Derived Macrocyclic Glycolipid, Macromolecules, 46(9), 3293-3300 (2013).

Qin, Xu; Wenchun, Xie; Tian, Sai; Yuan, Han; Yu, Zheng; Butterfoss, Glenn L.; Khuong, Anne C.; Gross, Richard A. “Enzyme-Triggered Hydrogelation via Self-Assembly of Alternating Peptides”, Chem. Commun., 49(42), 4839 – 4841 (2013).

Zhang, Yu-Rong; Spinella, Stephen; Xie, Wenchun; Cai, Jiali; Yang, Yixin; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Gross, Richard A. “Polymeric triglyceride analogs prepared by enzyme-catalyzed condensation polymerizationEuropean Polymer Journal, 49(4), 793-803 (2013).

Zhu, Jianhui; Cai, Jiali; Xie, Wenchun; Chen, Pin-Hsuan; Gazzano, Massimo; Scandola, Mariastella; Gross, Richard A. “Poly(butylene 2,5-furan dicarboxylate), a Biobased Alternative to PBT: Synthesis, Physical Properties, and Crystal StructureMacromolecules 46(3), 796-804 (2013).

Qin, Xu; Khuong, Anne C.; Yu, Zheng; Du, Wenzhe; Decatur, John; Gross, Richard A. “Simplifying alternating peptide synthesis by protease-catalyzed dipeptide oligomerizationChemical Communications 49(4), 385-387 (2013).


Bhangale, Atul S.; Beers, Kathryn L.; Gross, Richard A.; “Enzyme-catalyzed polymerizations of end-functionalized polymers in a microreactorMacromolecules 45:7000−7008 (2012).

Ganesh, Manoj; Gross, Richard A. "Enzymatic biomaterial degradation: Flow conditions & relative humidity", Polymer, 53:3454-3461 (2012)

Viswanathan, Kodandaraman; Schofield, Mark H.; Teraoka, Iwao; Gross, Richard A. "Surprising metal binding properties of phytochelatin-like peptides prepared by protease-catalysis", Green Chemistry, 14, 1020–1029 (2012).

Baker, Peter James; Poultney, Christopher; Liu, Zhiqiang; Gross, Richard; Montclare, Jin Kim "Identification and comparison of cutinases for synthetic polyester degradation", Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:229–240 (2012).

Hunley, Matthew T.; Bhangale, Atul S.; Kundu, Santanu; Johnson, Peter M.; Waters, Michael S.; Gross, Richard A.; Beers, Kathryn L. "In situ monitoring of enzyme-catalyzed (co)polymerizations by Raman spectroscopy" Polymer Chemistry, 3(2), 314-318 (2012).


Kundu, S.; Bhangale, A.S.; Wallace, W.E.; Flynn, K.M.; Guttman, C.M.; Gross, R.A.; Beers, K.L. "Continuous Flow Enzyme-Catalyzed Polymerization in a MicroreactorJ. Am. Chem. Soc., 133 (15), pp 6006-6011 (2011).

Yang, Y.; Lu, W.; Cai, J.; Hou, Y.; Ouyang, S.; Xie, W.; Gross, R.A. " Poly(oleic diacid-co-glycerol): Comparison of Polymer Structure Resulting from Chemical and Lipase Catalysis Macromolecules, 44(7), pp 1977-1985 (2011).

Liu, C.; Jiang, Z.; Decatur, J.; Xie, W.; Gross, R.A. " Chain Growth and Branch Structure Formation during Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Aliphatic Polycarbonate Polyols Macromolecules, 44(6), pp 1471-1479 (2011).


Juais, D.; Naves, A.F.; Li, C.; Gross, R. A.; Catalani, L.H." Isosorbide Polyesters from Enzymatic Catalysis Macromolecules, 43(24), pp 10315-10319 (2010).

Lu, W.; Ness, J.E.; Xie, W.; Zhang, X.; Minshull, J.; Gross, R.A." Biosynthesis of Monomers for Plastics from Renewable Oils J. Am. Chem. Soc., 132(43), pp 15451-15455 (2010).

Focarete, M.L.; Gualandi, C.; Scandola, M.; Govoni, M.; Giordano, E.; Foroni, L.; Valente, S.; Pasquinelli, G.; Gao, W.; Gross, R.A." Electrospun Scaffolds of a Polyhydroxyalkanoate Consisting of ω-hydroxylpentadecanoate Repeat Units: Fabrication and in Vitro Biocompatibility Studies Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, 21(10), pp 1283-1296 (2010).

Viswanathan, K.; Omorebokhae, R.; Li, G.; Gross, R.A. " Protease-Catalyzed Oligomerization of Hydrophobic Amino Acid Ethyl Esters in Homogeneous Reaction Media Using L-Phenylalanine as a Model System Biomacromolecules, 11(8), pp 2152-2160 (2010).

Gross, R.A.; Ganesh, M.; Lu, W. " Enzyme-Catalysis Breathes New Life into Polyester Condensation Polymerizations Trends in Biotechnology, 28(8), pp 435-443 (2010).

Viswanathan, K.; Li, G.; Gross, R.A. " Protease Catalyzed in Situ C-terminal Modification of Oligoglutamate Macromolecules, 43(12), pp 5245-5255 (2010).

Cai, J.; Liu, C.; Cai, M.; Zhu, J.; Zuo, F.; Hsiao, B.S.; Gross, R.A." Effects of Molecular Weight on Poly(ω-pentadecalactone) Mechanical and Thermal Properties Polymer, 51(5), pp 1088-1099 (2010).

Feder, D.; Gross, R.A. " Exploring Chain Length Selectivity in HIC-Catalyzed Polycondensation Reactions Biomacromolecules, 11(3), pp 690-697 (2010).

Yang, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X.; Xie, W.; Cai, M.; Gross, R.A. " Two-Step Biocatalytic Route to Biobased Functional Polyesters from ω-Carboxy Fatty Acids and Diols Biomacromolecules, 11(1), pp 259-268 (2010).


Gao, W.; Liu, X.M.; Gross, R.A. " "Determination of Molar Mass and Solution Properties of Cationic Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Derivatives by Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering with Simultaneous Refractive Index Detection Polymer International, 58(10), pp 1115-1119 (2009).

Cai, J.; Hsiao, B. S.; Gross, R.A. " " Polypentadecalactone Prepared by Lipase Catalysis: Crystallization Kinetics and Morphology ” Polymer International, 58(8), pp 944-953 (2009).

Liu, Z.; Gosser, Y.; Baker, P.J.; Ravee, Y.; Lu, Z.; Alemu, G.; Li, H.; Butterfoss, G.L. Kong, X.-P. Gross, R.A.; Montclare, J.K. “ Structural and Functional Studies of Aspergillus oryzae Cutinase: Enhanced Thermostability and Hydrolytic Activity of Synthetic Ester and Polyester Degradation” J. Am. Chem. Soc., Articles ASAP

Ganesh, M.; Dave, R.N.; L’Amoreaux, W.; Gross, R.A. " “Embedded Enzymatic Biomaterial Degradation” Macromolecules, 42 (18), pp 6836–6839 (2009).

Ronkvist, A.M.; Lu, W.; Feder, D.; Gross, R.A. " “Cutinase-Catalyzed Deacetylation of Poly(vinyl acetate)” Macromolecules, 2009, 42 (16), 6086–6097 (2009)

Cai J.L., Hsiao B.S., Gross R.A.; " “Polypentadecalactone prepared by lipase catalysis: crystallization kinetics and morphology” Polymer International 58(8): 944-953 (2009).

Ronkvist, A.M.; Xie, W.; Lu, W.; Gross, R.A. " “Cutinase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)” Macromolecules, 2009, 42 (14), pp 5128–5138

Gao W, Liu X.M., Gross R.A. " “ Determination of molar mass and solution properties of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose derivatives by multi-angle laser light scattering with simultaneous refractive index detection” Polymer International 58(10): 1115-1119 (2009)


Chen, B., Pernodet, N., Rafailovich, M.H., Bakhtina, A. and Gross, R.A. " Protein immobilization on epoxy-activated thin polymer films: Effect of surface wettability and enzyme loading Langmuir 24 (23): 13457-13464 (2008).

Poojari, Y., Palsule, A.S., Cai, M., Clarson, S.J. and Gross, R.A. " Synthesis of organosiloxane copolymers using enzymatic polyesterification. European Polymer Journal 44(12): 4139-4145 (2008).

Zini, E., Gazzano, M., Scandola, M., Wallner, S.R. and Gross, R. A. " Glycolipid biomaterials: Solid-state properties of a poly(sophorolipid). Macromolecules 42(20): 7463-7468 (2008).

Li, G., Raman, V.K., Xie, W.C. and Gross R.A. " Protease-catalyzed co-oligomerizations of L-leucine ethyl ester with L-glutamic acid diethyl ester: Sequence and chain length distributions. Macromolecules 41 (19): 7003-7012 (2008).

Zini, E., Scandola, M., Jiang, Z.Z., Liu, C. and Gross RA, " Aliphatic polyester carbonate copolymers: Enzymatic synthesis and solid-state characterization. Macromolecules 41 (13): 4681-4687(2008).

Fu, S.L., Wallner, S.R., Bowne, W.B., Hagler, M.D., Zenilman, M.E., Gross, R.A. and Bluth, M.H. " Sophorolipids and their derivatives are lethal against human pancreatic cancer cells. Journal of Surgical Research 148 (1): 77-82 (2008).

Hunsen, M., Abul, A., Xie, W.C. and Gross, R.A. " Humicola insolens cutinase-catalyzed lactone ring-opening polymerizations: kinetic and mechanistic studies BioMacromolecules 9(2): 518-522 (2008).

Chen, B., Hu, J., Miller, E.M., Xie, W.H., Cai, M.M. and Gross, R.A. " Candida antarctica lipase B chemically immobilized on epoxy-activated micro- and nanobeads: Catalysts for polyester synthesis. Biomacromolecules 9: 463-471 (2008).

Jiang, Z.Z., Liu, C., and Gross, R.A. " Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of aliphatic poly(carbonate-co-esters). Macromolecules 41 (13): 4671-4680 (2008).

Bluth, M.H., Fu, S.L., Fu, A., Stanek, A., Smith-Norowitz, T.A., Wallner, S.R., Gross, R.A., Nowakowski, M. and Zenilman, M.E. " Sophorolipids decrease asthma severity and ova-specific IgE production in a mouse asthma model. Journal of Allergy and Clnical Immunology 121 (2): Pages: S2-S2, Supplement: Suppl. 1, Meeting Abstract: 6 (FEB 2008)


Dodds, D. R. and Gross, R. A. " Chemicals from biomass. Science 318 (5854): 1250-1251 (2007).

Sharma, B., Azim, A., Azim, H. and Gross, R. A. " Enzymatic synthesis and solid-state properties of aliphatic polyesteramides with polydimethylsiloxane blocks. Macromolecules 40(22): 7919-7927(2007).

Jiang, Z. Z., Liu, C., Xie, W. C. and Gross, R. A. " Controlled lipase-catalyzed synthesis of poly(hexamethylene carbonate). Macromolecules 40 (22): 7934-7943 (2007).

Hardin, R., Pierre, J., Schulze, R., Mueller, C. M., Fu, S. L., Wallner, S. R., Stanek, A., Shah, V.,Gross, R. A., Weedon, J., Nowakowski, M., Zenilman, M. E. and Bluth, M. H. " Sophorolipids improve sepsis survival: Effects of dosing and derivatives. Journal of Surgical Research 142 (2): 314-319 (2007).

Fu, S. L., Mueller, C., Lin, Y. Y., Viterbo, D., Pierre, J., Shah, V., Gross, R., Schulze, R. and Zenilman, M. Sophorolipid treatment decreases LIPS induced inflammatory responses and NO production in macrophages. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 205 (3): S44-S44 (2007).

Jiang, Z. Z., Azim, H., Gross, R. A., Focarete, M. L. and Scandola, M., " Lipase-catalyzed copolymerization of omega-pentadecalactone with p-dioxanone and characterization of copolymer thermal and crystalline properties. Biomacromolecules 8 (7): 2262-2269 (2007).

Kulshrestha, A. S., Gao, W., Fu, H. Y. and Gross, R. A. " Synthesis and characterization of branched polymers from lipase-catalyzed trimethylolpropane copolymerizations. Biomacromolecules 8 (6): 1794-1801 (2007).

Chen, B., Miller, M. E. and Gross, R. A. " Effects of porous polystyrene resin parameters on Candida antarctica Lipase B adsorption, distribution, and polyester synthesis activity. Langmuir 23 (11): 6467-6474 (2007).

Hagler, M., Smith-Norowitz, T. A., Chice, S., Wallner, S. R., Viterbo, D., Mueller, C. M., Gross, R., Nowakowski, M., Schulze, R., Zenilman, M. E. and Bluth, M. H., " Sophorolipids decrease IgE production in U266 cells by downregulation of BSAP (Pax5), TLR-2, STAT3 and IL-6. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 119 (1): S263-S263 (2007).

Felse, P. A., Shah, V., Chan, J., Rao, K. J. and Gross, R. A. " Sophorolipid biosynthesis by Candida bombicola from industrial fatty acid residues. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 40 (2): 316-323 (2007)

Chen, B., Miller, E. M., Miller, L., Maikner, J. J. and Gross, R. A. " Effects of Macroporous Resin Size on Candida antarctica Lipase B Adsorption, Fraction of Active Molecules, and Catalytic Activity for Polyester Synthesis. Langmuir 23(3): 1381-1387(2007).

Hunsen, M., Azim, A., Mang, H., Wallner, S. R., Ronkvist, A., Xie, W. and Gross, R. A. " A Cutinase with Polyester Synthesis Activity. Macromolecules 40(2): 148-150 (2007).

Gao, W., Hagver, R., Shah, V., Xie, W., Gross, R. A., Ilker, M. F., Bell, C., Burke, K. A. and Coughlin, E. B. " Glycolipid polymer synthesized from natural lactonic sophorolipids by ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Macromolecules 40(2): 145-147 (2007).


Li, G., Vaidya, A., Viswanathan, K., Cui, J.R., Xie, W.C., Gao, W. and Gross, R.A. Rapid regioselective oligomerization of L-glutamic acid diethyl ester catalyzed by papain, Macromolecules 39 (23): 7915-7921 (2006)

Bluth, M.H., Kandil, E., Mueller, C.M., Shah, V., Lin, Y.Y., Zhang, H., Dresner, L., Lempert, L., Nowakowski, M., Gross, R.A., Schulze, R. and Zenilman, M.E. " Sophorolipids block lethal effects of septic shock in rats in a cecal ligation and puncture model of experimental sepsis. Critical Care Medicine 34 (1): 188-195 (2006)

Sahoo, B., Bhattacharya, A., Fu, H.Y., Gao, W. and Gross, R.A. " Influence of PEG end-group and molecular weight on its reactivity for lipase-catalyzed polyester synthesis BioMacromolecules 7 (4): 1042-1048 (2006).

Mueller, C.M., Viterbo, D., Murray, P.J., Shah, V., Gross, R.A., Schulze, R., Zenilman, M.E. and Bluth, M.H. " Sophorolipid treatment decreases inflammatory cytokine expression in an in vitro model of experimental sepsis. Faseb Journal 20 (4): A204-A204 Part 1, (2006).

Shah, V., Baldrian, P., Eichlerova, I., Dave, R., Madamwar, D., Nerud, F. and Gross, R.A. " Influence of dimethyl sulfoxide on extracellular enzyme production by Pleurotus ostreatus. Biotechnology Letters 28 (9): 651-655 (2006).

Hu, J., Gao, W., Kulshrestha, A. and Gross, R.A. " "Sweet polyesters": Lipase-catalyzed condensation - Polymerizations of alditols. Macromolecules 39 (20): 6789-6792 (2006)

Azim, A., Shah, V., Doncel, G.F., Peterson, N., Gao, W. and Gross, R.A. " Amino acid conjugated sophorolipids: A new family of biologically active functionalized glycolipids. Bioconjugate Chemistry 17 (6): 1523-1529 (2006).

Azim, H., Dekhterman, A., Jiang, Z.Z. and Gross, R.A. " Candida antarctica lipase B-catalyzed synthesis of poly(butylene succinate): Shorter chain building blocks also work. BioMacromolecules 7 (11): 3093-3097 (2006).


Shah V, Doncel GF, Seyoum T, Eaton KM, Zalenskaya I, Hagver R, Azim A, Gross R. " Sophorolipids, microbial glycolipids with anti-human immunodeficiency virus and sperm-immobilizing activities. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 149; 1-8 (2005).

Mijovic, J.; Bian, Y.; Gross, R. A.; Chen, B. " Dynamics of Proteins in Hydrated State and in Solution As Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy Macromolecules; 38(26) 10812-10819 (2005).

Chakraborty. S,Sahoo. B,Teraoka, Gross.RA " Solution properties of starch nanoparticles in water and DMSO as studied by dynamic light scattering Carbohydrates polymers; 60(4); 475-481, (2005).

Nakaoki, T.; Mei, Y.; Miller, L.-M.; Kumar, A; Kalra, B; Miller, E.-M.; Kirk, O.; Christensen, M.; Gross, R.A. “Candida antartica Lipase B catalyzed polymerization of lactones: Effects of immobilization matrices on polymerization kinetics and Molecular Weight” Industrial Biotechnology; 1(2) 126-134 (2005)

Sahoo, B.; Brandstadt, K. F.; Lane, T. H.; Gross, R. A. " “Sweet Silicones": Biocatalytic Reactions to Form Organosilicon Carbohydrate Macromers Org. Lett.; 7(18); 3857-3860 (2005).

Loos, K.; Kennedy, S. B.; Eidelman, N.; Tai, Y.; Zharnikov, M.; Amis, E. J.; Ulman, A.; Gross, R. A. " Combinatorial Approach To Study Enzyme/Surface Interactions Langmuir; 21(12); 5237-5241 (2005).

Kulshrestha, A. S.; Sahoo, B., Gao, W.; Fu, H. and Gross, R.A. " “Lipase Catalysis. A Direct Route to Linear Aliphatic Copolyesters of Bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric Acid with Pendant Carboxylic Acid Groups”, Macromolecules; 38(8); 3205-3213 (2005)

Kulshrestha, A. S.; Gao, W.; Gross, R.A. " “Glycerol Copolyesters: Control of Branching and Molecular Weight Using a Lipase Catalyst”, Macromolecules, (2005); 38(8); 3193-3204

Ceccorulli, G.; Scandola, M.; Kumar, A.; Kalra, B.; Gross, R. A., “Cocrystallization of Random Copolymers of -Pentadecalactone and -Caprolactone Synthesized by Lipase Catalysis” Biomacromolecules; 6(2); 902-907 (2005).

Chakraborty, S.; Sahoo, B.; Teraoka, I.; Miller, L. M.; Gross, R. A. " “Enzyme-Catalyzed Regioselective Modification of Starch Nanoparticles” Macromolecules; 38(1); 61-68 (2005).


Zhang, L., Somasundaran, P., Singh, S. K., Felse, A. P., Gross, R.A. Synthesis and interfacial properties of sophorolipid derivatives Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem.Eng. Aspects; 240; 75-82 (2004)

Zhou, S., Xu, Chang.., Wang, J., Gao, W., Akhverdiyeva., Shah, V., Gross, R. A. Supramolecular Assembles of a Naturally Derived Sopholipid. Langmuir; 20; 7926-7932 (2004)

Kalra, B.; Kumar, A.; Gross, R. A.; Baiardo, M.; Scandola, M. “Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of New Brush Copolymers Comprising Poly( -pentadecalactone) with Unusual Thermal and Crystalline Properties” Macromolecules; 37(4); 1243-1250 (2004).

Mahapatro, A.; Kumar, A.; Kalra, B.; Gross, R. A. “Solvent-Free Adipic Acid/1,8-Octanediol Condensation Polymerizations Catalyzed by Candida antartica Lipase B” Macromolecules; 37(1); 35-40 (2004).

Van As, B. A. C.; Thomassen, P.; Kalra, B.; Gross, R. A.; Meijer, E. W.; Palmans, A. R. A.; Heise, A. “One-Pot Chemoenzymatic Cascade Polymerization under Kinetic Resolution Conditions” Macromolecules; 37(24); 8973-8977 (2004).

Mahapatro, A.; Kumar, A.; Gross, R. A.; “Mild, Solvent-Free -Hydroxy Acid Polycondensations Catalyzed by Candida antarctica Lipase B.” Biomacromolecules; 5(1); 62-68 (2004).

Loeker, F. C.; Duxbury, C. J.; Kumar, R.; Gao, W.; Gross, R. A.; Howdle, S. M. Enzyme-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization of -Caprolactone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Macromolecules; 37(7); 2450-2453 (2004).

Hyung-Pil, S, Chung, C.H., Kim, S.K., Gross, R.A., Kaplan., D.L. Lee, J.W. Mass Production of Pullulan with Optimized Concentrations of Carbon and Nitrogen sources by Aureobasidium pullulans HP-2001 in a 100-L Bioreactor” J. Microbol. Biotechnol.; 14,(2), 237-242 (2004)

Mei, Y., Kumar, A, Gao, W, Gross, R.A., Kennedy, S.B., Washburn, N.R., Amis, E,.J., Elliot, John T. Biocompatibility of sorbitol-containing polyesters. Part 1: Synthesis, surface analysis and cell response in vitro; Biomaterials; 25; 4195-4201 (2004)


Singh, S,K, Felse, A. P., Nunez, A., Foglia, T.A. and Gross, R.A. Regioselective Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sophorolipid Esters, Amides and Multifunctional Monomers. J. Org. Chem.; 68; 5466-5477 (2003)

Kumar, A.; Kulshrestha, A. S.; Gao, W.; Gross, R. A.; Versatile Route to Polyol Polyesters by Lipase Catalysis Macromolecules; 36(22); 8219-8221 (2003).

Mei, Y.; Miller, L.; Gao, W.; Gross, R. A.; Imaging the Distribution and Secondary Structure of Immobilized Enzymes Using Infrared Microspectroscopy Biomacromolecules; 4(1); 70-74 (2003).

Mahapatro, A.; Kalra, B.; Kumar, A.; Gross, R. A.; Lipase-Catalyzed Polycondensations: Effect of Substrates and Solvent on Chain Formation, Dispersity, and End-Group Structure Biomacromolecules; 4(3); 544-551 (2003).

Fu, H.; Kulshrestha, A. S.; Gao, W.; Gross, R. A.; Baiardo, M.; Scandola, M Physical Characterization of Sorbitol or Glycerol Containing Aliphatic Copolyesters Synthesized by Lipase-Catalyzed Polymerization Macromolecules; 36(26); 9804-9808 (2003)

Dyal, A., Loos, Katja., Noto, M., Chang, S.W., Spagnoli, C., Shafi, Kurikka V.P.M., Ulman, A., Cowman,M.,Gross. R.A. Activity of Candida rugosa Lipase Immobilized on -Fe2O3 Magnetic Nanoparticles J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 125; 1684-1685 (2003).

Mei, Y, Kumar, A, Gross; R.A., “Kinetics and Mechanism of Candida antarctica Lipase B Catalyzed Solution Polymerization of -Caprolactone”, Macromolecules; 36(15); 5530-5536 (2003).


Gross, R. A., Kalra, B; “Biodegradable Polymers for the Environment”, Science, 297, 803-806 (2002).

Focarete, M. L.; Gazzano, M.; Scandola, M.; Kumar, A.; Gross, R. A.; “Copolymers of ω-Pentadecalactone and Trimethylene Carbonate from Lipase Catalysis: Influence of Microstructure on Solid-State Properties”, Macromolecules; 35(21); 8066-8071, (2002).

Kumar, A.; Gross, R. A.; Wang, Y.; Hillmyer, M. A.; “Recognition by Lipases of ω-Hydroxyl Macroinitiators for Diblock Copolymer Synthesis” Macromolecules; 35(20); 7606-7611, (2002).

Kumar, R.; Gao, W.; Gross, R. A.; “Functionalized Polylactides: Preparation and Characterization of [L]-Lactide-co-Pentofuranose” Macromolecules; 2002; 35(18); 6835-6844.

Bankova, M.; Kumar, A.; Impallomeni, G.; Ballistreri, A.; Gross, R. A.; “Mass-Selective Lipase-Catalyzed Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) Transesterification Reactions”, Macromolecules; 35(18); 6858-6866, (2002).

Hu, Shanghui; Gupta, Pankaj; Prasad, Ashok K.; Gross, Richard, A., Parmar, Virinder S. “Selective enzymatic epoxidation of dienes: Generation of Functional Enantiomerically Enriched Diene Monoepoxy Monomers”, Tetrahedron Letters; 43; 6763-6766 (2002).

B. Kalra and R.A. Gross, “HRP-Mediated Polymerizations of acrylamide and sodium acrylate”, Green Chemistry; 4; 174-178 (2002).

Y. Mei, A. Kumar, and Richard A. Gross, “Probing Water-Temperature Relationships for Lipase-Catalyzed Lactone Ring-opening Polymerizations” Macromolecules; 35, 5444-5448 (2002).

R. Kumar and R.A. Gross, “Biocatalytic Route to Well-Defined Macromers Built around a Sugar Core, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 124(9) (2002).

V Guilmanov, A Ballistreri, G Impallomeni, R.A. Gross, “Oxygen Transfer Rate and Sophorose Lipid Production by Candida bombicola”, Biotechnol. and Bioeng; 77(5), 489-494 (2002)


R. A. Gross, A Kumar, B Kalra, "In-vitro Enzyme Catalyzed Polymer Synthesis", Chemical Reviews, 101(7), 2097-2124 (2001).

J.W. Lee, F. Dang, W.G. Yeomans, A.L. Allen, R.A. Gross, D.L. Kaplan, “Acetobacter xylinium ATCC 10245: Production of Chitosan-Cellulose and Chitin-Cellulose Exopolymers, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67(9), 3970-3975 (2001).

M. L. Focarete, A. Kumar, M. Scandola, R. A. Gross, "Physical Characterization of Poly(ω-pentadecalactone) Synthesized by Lipase-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization", J of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics, 39(15), 1721-1729 (2001).

R.A.Gross, B.Kalra, A. Kumar "In-vitro Lipase Catalyzed Polyester and Polycarbonate Synthesis" Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology; 55(6), 655-660 (2001).

A Kumar, K Garg, R. A. Gross, "Lipase-Catalyzed Copolymerizations of Trimethylene Carbonate and ω-Pentadecalactone" Macromolecules; 34; 3527-3533 (2001).


A Kumar, R.A Gross, “Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification: New Synthetic Routes To Copolyesters”, J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 122; 11767-11770 (2000).

A Kumar, B Kalra, A Dekhterman, R. A. Gross, “Efficient Ring-opening Polymerization and Co-polymerization of ϵ-Caprolactone and ω-Pentadecalactone Catalyzed by Candida Antartica Lipase B”, Macromolecules, 33, 6303-6309 (2000).

K.S. Bisht, W Gao, R.A. Gross, “Glycolipids from Candida Bombicola: Polymerization of 6-O-Acryl Sophorolipid Derivative”, Macromolecules, 33, 6208-6210 (2000).

A. Kumar, R.A.Gross, J.D.Jenderoseck, “Poly(3-hydroxybutrate)-depolymerase from Pseudomonas Lemoignei: catalysis of esterification in organic media” Journal of Organic Chemistry, 65, 7800-7806 (2000).

B Kalra, R.A. Gross, “HRP-Mediated Free Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate”, Biomacromolecules, 1, 501-505 (2000).

A Kumar and R.A. Gross, “Candida antartica Lipase B Catalyzed Polycaprolactone Synthesis: Effects of Organic Media and Temperature, Biomacromolecules, 1, 133-138 (2000).

B Kalra, R.A. Gross, “HRP-Mediated Free Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate”, Biomacromolecules, 1, 501-505 (2000).

A Kumar and R.A. Gross, “Candida antartica Lipase B Catalyzed Polycaprolactone Synthesis: Effects of Organic Media and Temperature, Biomacromolecules, 1, 133-138 (2000).

Before 2000

J.W. Lee, W.G. Yeomans, A.L. Allen, F. Deng, R.A. Gross and D.L. Kaplan, “Biosynthesis of Novel Exopolymers by Aureobasidium pullulans”, Appl. & Env. Microbiol. 65(12), 5265-5271 (1999)

A. Gorkovenko, J. Zhang, R. A. Gross, D. L. Kaplan, A. L. Allen. Control of unsaturated fatty acid substituents in emulsans. Carbohydrate Polymers. 39,79-84 (1999).

R. D. Ashby, F.-Y. Shi and R.A. Gross, “A Tunable Switch to Regulate the Synthesis of Low and High Molecular Weight Microbial Polyesters” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 62 (1), (1999).

K. Bisht, R. Gross and D. Kaplan, “Enzyme-Mediated Regioselective Acylations of Sophorolipids”, J. Org. Chem., 64:3, 780-789 (1999).

X. Chen and R. Gross, “Versatile Copolymers from [L]-Lactide and [D]-Xylofuranose”, Macromolecules, 32, 308-314 (1999).

K. S. Bisht, F. Deng, R. A. Gross, D. L. Kaplan and G. Swift, “Ethyl Glucoside as a Multifunctionl Initiator for Enzyme-Catalyzed regioselective Lactone Ring-opening Polymerization” J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 120, 1363-1367 (1998).

K. S. Bisht, R. A. Gross and A. L. Cholli, “Enzymatic Polymerization of Poly(ϵ-CL) Containing an Ethyl Glucopyranoside Head Group: An NMR Study” Applied Spectroscopy, 52 (11) 1472-1478, (1998).

Young Ko and Richard A. Gross, “γ-Poly(glutamic acid) Formation by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a: Physiological Effects of glucose and glycerol”, Biotechnol. and Bioeng., 57(40), 430-437 (1998).

D. L. Kaplan, J. Dordick, R. A. Gross, G. Swift. In Enzymes in Polymer Science, R. Gross, D. Kaplan, G. Swift, Editors; American Chemical Society Symposium Series 684: 2-17 (1998).

Kirpal S. Bisht, Lori A. Henderson, Yuri Y. Svirkin and Richard A. Gross, David L. Kaplan and Graham Swift, “Monomer and Polymer Synthesis by Lipase-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Reactions”, In, Enzymes in Polymer Synthesis, Eds. R.A. Gross, D.L. Kaplan and G. Swift, ACS Symposium Series 684, ACS, Washington, 90-111 (1998).

Xianhai Chen, Stephen P. McCarthy and Richard A. Gross, “Preparation and Characterization of Polycarbonates from 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxaspiro[5,5]undecane-3-one (DOXTC)-Trimethylenecarbonate (TMC) Ring-Opening Polymerizations, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., Vol. 67, 547-557 (1998).

Xianhai Chen, Stephen P. McCarthy and Richard A. Gross, “Synthesis, Characterization and Epoxidaion of an Aliphatic Polycarbonate from 2,2-[4,4-cyclohexene-1]-trimethylene tcarbonate (cHTC) Ring-Opening Polymerization”, Macromolecules; 30, 3470-3476 (1997).

Fengying Shi, Richard D. Ashby and Richard A. Gross, “Formation by Alcaligenes species of Microbial Polyesters Containing 3-Hydroxybutyrate and 4-Hydroxybutyrate Repeat Units: Investigation of Product Homogeneity”, Macromolecules, Vol. 30, 2521-2523 (1997).

Richard Ashby, Feng-Ying Shi, and Richard A. Gross, “Use of poly(ethylene glycol) to control the end group structure and molecular weight of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) formed by Alcaligenes latus DSM 1122,” Tetrahedron, Vol 53, No. 45, 15209-115223 (1997).

Kirpal S. Bisht, Yuri Y. Svirkin, Lori A. Henderson, Richard A. Gross, David L. Kaplan and Graham Swift, “Lipase-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization of Trimethylene Carbonate, Macromolecules, Vol. 30, 7735-7742 (1997).

Jin W. Lee, Water G. Yeomans, Alfred L. Allen, David L. Kaplan, and Richard A. Gross, “Microbial production of water-soluble non curdlan type exopolymer-B with controlled composition by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749” Biotechnol. Lett., 19(12), 1217-1221 (1997).

Jin W. Lee, Water G. Yeomans, Alfred L. Allen, David L. Kaplan, and Richard A. Gross. “Production of zoogloea gum by Zoogloea ramigera with glucose analogs” Biotechnol. Lett. 19(8), 799-802 (1997).

Kirpal S. Bisht, Lori A. Henderson, Richard A. Gross, David L. Kaplan and Graham Swift, “Enzyme-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization of Poly(-pentadecalactone)”, Macromolecules, Vol. 30, 2705-2711 (1997).

Jin W. Lee, Water G. Yeomans, Alfred L. Allen, David L. Kaplan, Frank Deng, and Richard A. Gross. Exopolymers from curdlan production-incorporation of glucose-related sugars by Agrobacerium sp. ATCC 31749. Can. J. Microbiol. 43:149-156. (1997).

Jinwen Zhang, Alexander Gorkovenko, Richard A. Gross, Alfred L. Allen and David L. Kaplan “Incorporation of 2-Hydroxyl Fatty Acids by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 to Tailor Emulsan Structure, Intern. J. Biol. Macromol.,Vol. 20, 9-21 (1997).

Alexander Gorkovenko, Jinwen Zhang, Richard A. Gross, Alfred L. Allen and David L. Kaplan, “Bioengineering of Emulsifier Structure: Emulsan Analogs”, Can. J. Microbiol, Vol. 43, 384-390 (1997).

Renée T. Macdonald, Stephen P. McCarthy and Richard A. Gross, “Enzymatic Degradability of Poly(lactide): Effects of Chain Stereochemistry and Material Crystallinity”, Macromolecules, Vol. 29, 7356-7361 (1996).

Lori A. Henderson, Yuri, Y. Svirkin, Richard A. Gross, David L. Kaplan and Graham Swift, “Enzyme Catalyzed Polymerizations of -caprolactone: Effects of Initiator on Product Structure, Propagation Kinetics, and Mechanism”, Macromolecules, Vol. 29, 7759-7766 (1996).

David S. Roesser, Stephen P. McCarthy, Richard A. Gross and David L. Kaplan, "Effects of Substitution Site on Acetyl Amylose Biodegradability by Amylase Enzymes", Macromolecules, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1-9 (1996).

Feng-Ying Shi, Richard Ashby and Richard A. Gross, "Use of Poly(ethylene glycol)s to Regulate Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Molecular Weight during Alcaligenes eutrophus Cultivations", Macromolecules, Vol. 29, 17753-7758 (1996).

Feng-Ying Shi, Denise Rutherford and Richard A. Gross, "Microbial Polyester Synthesis: Effects of Poly(ethylene glycol) on Product Composition, Repeat Unit Sequence and End Group Structure", Macromolecules, Vol. 29, 10-17 (1996).

Richard A. Gross, Oh-young Kim, Denise R. Rutherford and Richard A. Newmark, “Cyanophenoxy-Containing Microbial Polyesters: Structural Analysis, Thermal Properties, Second Harmonic Generation and In-Vivo Biodegradability”, Polym. International, Vol. 39, 205-213 (1996).

Jin Xu, Stephen P. McCarthy and Richard A. Gross, “Racemic α-Methyl-β-propiolactone Polymerization by Organometallic Catalyst Systems”, Macromolecules, Vol. 29, No. 13, 4565-4571 (1996).

Anne-Marie Cromwick, Gregory A. Birrer and Richard A. Gross, “Effects of pH and Aeration on γ-Poly(glutamic acid) Formation by Bacillus licheniformis in Controlled Batch Fermenter Cultures”, Biotechnol. Bioeng., Vol. 50, 222-227 (1996).

Oh-young Kim, Richard A. Gross, W. James Hammar and Richard A. Newmark, “Microbial Synthesis of Poly(β-hydroxyalkanoates) Containing Fluorinated Side-Chain Substituents”, Macromolecules, Vol. 29, No. 13, 4572-4581 (1996).

Jin Xu, Richard A. Gross, David L. Kaplan and Graham Swift, “Chemoenzymatic Synthesis and Study of Poly(α-Methyl-β-propiolactone) Stereocopolymers”, Macromolecules, Vol. 29, No. 13, 4582-4590 (1996).

Jin Xu, Richard A. Gross, David L. Kaplan and Graham Swift, “Chemoenzymatic Route to Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)”, Macromolecules, Vol. 29, 3857-3861 (1996).

Jin Xu, Stephen P. McCarthy, Richard A. Gross and David L. Kaplan “Chitosan Film Acylation and Effects on Biodegradability”, Macromolecules, Vol. 29, 3436-3440 (1996).

Yuri Y. Svirkin, Jin Xu, Richard A. Gross, David L. Kaplan and Graham Swift, “Enzyme-Catalyzed Stereoselective Ring-Opening Polymerization of α-Methyl-β-propiolactone”, Macromolecules, Vol. 29, No. 13, 4591-4597 (1996).

Zbigniew Jedlinski, Marek Kowalczuk, Piotr Kurcok, Grazyna Adamus, Andrzej Matuszowicz, Wanda Sikorska, Richard A. Gross, Jin Xu, and Robert W. Lenz, “Stereochemical Control in the Anionic Polymerization of β-Butyrolactone Initiated with Alkali-Metal Alkoxides”, Macromolecules, Vol. 29, 3773-3777 (1996).

Oh-young Kim, Richard A. Gross and Denise R. Rutherford, “Bioengineering of Poly(β-hydroxyalkanoates) for Advanced Material Applications: Incorporation of Cyano- and Nitrophenoxy Side Chain Substituents”, Can. J. Microbiol., Vol. 41, supplement 1, 32-43 (1995).

Ferdinando F. Bruno, Joseph A. Akkara, Madhu Ayyagari, David L. Kaplan, Richard A. Gross, Graham Swift and Jonathan S. Dordick, “Enzymatic Modification of Insoluble Amylose in Organic Solvents”, Macromolecules, Vol. 28, 8881-8883 (1995).

Renée T. Macdonald, Satish K. Pulapura, Yuri Y. Svirkin and Richard A. Gross, "Enzyme Catalyzed -Caprolactone Ring-Opening Polymerization", Macromolecules, 28, 73-78 (1995).

Anne-Marie Cromwick and Richard A. Gross, "Effects of Manganese (II) on Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945A Physiology and γ-Poly(glutamic acid) Formation, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., Vol 17, No. 5, 259-267 (1995).

Anne-Marie Cromwick and Richard A. Gross, "Investigation by NMR of Metabolic Routes to Bacterial -Poly(Glutamic Acid) Using 13C Labeled Citrate and Glutamate as Media Carbon sources, Can. J. Microbiol., Vol 41: 902-909 (1995).

Richard A. Gross, Ji-Dong Gu, David Eberiel and Stephen P. McCarthy, "Laboratory Scale Composting Test Methods to Determine Polymer Biodegradability: Model Studies on Cellulose Acetate, J Macromol. Sci.-Pure & Appl. Chem., V A32, No. 4, 613-628 (1995).

John E. Kemnitzer, Stephen P. McCarthy, Richard A. Gross, John Liggat, David J. Blundell and Mike Cox, "Crystallization Behavior of Predominantly Syndiotactic Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate)", J. Environ. Polym. Deg. Vol. 3(1), 37-47 (1995).

Gregory A. Birrer, Anne-Marie Cromwick and Richard A. Gross, "γ-Poly(glutamic acid) Formation by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945A: Physiology and Biochemical Studies, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. ; 16(5) 265-275 (1994).

Ji-Dong Gu, Shunjuan Yang, Robert Welton, David Eberiel, Stephen P. McCarthy and Richard A. Gross, "Effect of Environmental Parameters on the Degradability of Polymer Films in Laboratory Scale Composting Reactors", J. Environ. Polym. Deg., Vol 2, No. 2, 129-135 (1994).

Deeleep K. Rout, Shikha P. Barman, Satish K. Pulapura, and Richard A. Gross, "Cholesteric Mesophases Formed by the Modified Biological Macromolecule 3,6-O-(Buyl Carbamate)-N-phthaloyl Chitosan, Macromolecules, Vol. 27, 2945-2950 (1994).

Michael S. Reeve, Stephen P. McCarthy, Milton J. Downey and Richard A. Gross, "Polylactide Stereochemistry: Effect on Enzymatic Degradability, Macromolecules, Vol. 27, 825-831 (1994).

Richard A. Gross, "Bacterial Polyesters: Structural Variability in Microbial Synthesis", in Biomedical Polymers: Designed-to-Degrade Systems, Ed. S. Shalaby, Hanser Publishers, NY, pgs. 2-19 (1994).

Herbert W. Ulmer, Richard A. Gross, Mario Posada, Paul Weisbach, R. Clinton Fuller and Robert W. Lenz, "Bacterial Production of Poly(β-hydroxyalkanoates) Containing Unsaturated Repeating Units by Rhodospirillum rubrum, Macromolecules, Vol 27, 1675-1679 (1994).

Ji-Dong Gu, David Eberiel, Stephen P. McCarthy and Richard A. Gross, "Degradation and Mineralization of Cellulose Acetate in Simulated Thermophilic Compost Environments", J. Environ. Polym. Deg., Vol 1, No. 4, 281- 291 (1993).

Ji-Dong Gu, Sarah Coulter, David Eberiel, Stephen P. McCarthy and Richard A. Gross, "A Respirometric Method to Measure Mineralization of Polymeric Materials in a Matured Compost Environment", J. Environ. Polym. Deg., Vol 1, No. 4, 293- 299 (1993).

Richard A. Gross, Gregory A. Birrer, Anne-Marie Cromwick, Stephen A. Giannos and Stephen P. McCarthy, "Polymers From Biotechnology: Bacterial Polyesters and γ-Poly(glutamic Acid)", in Biotechnological Polymers: Medical, Pharmaceutical and Industrial Applications, Ed. C. G. Gebelin, Technomic Publishing Co., PA, pgs. 200-213 (1993).

Deeleep K. Rout, Satish K. Pulapura and Richard A. Gross, "Gel-Sol Transition and Thermotropic Behavior of a Chitosan Derivative in Lyotropic Solution", Macromolecules, Vol 26., 6007-6010 (1993).

Deeleep K. Rout, Satish K. Pulapura and Richard A. Gross, "Liquid Crystalline Characteristics of Site-Selectively-Modified Chitosan", Macromolecules, Vol. 26, 5999-6006 (1993).

John E. Kemnitzer, Stephen P. McCarthy, and Richard A. Gross, "Syndiospecific Ring-Opening Polymerization of -Butyrolactone to Form Predominantly Syndiotactic Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) Using Tin (IV) Catalysts", Macromolecules, Vol. 26, 6143-6150 (1993).

John E. Kemnitzer, Stephen P. McCarthy, and Richard A. Gross, "The Preparation of Predominantly Syndiotactic Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) by the Tributyl Methoxide Catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization of Racemic β-Butyrolactone" Macromolecules, Vol. 26, pgs. 1221-1229 (1993).

Michael S. Reeve, Stephen P. McCarthy and Richard A. Gross, "The Preparation and Characterization of [R]-Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate)-Poly(ϵ-Caprolactone) and [R]-Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate)-Poly(lactide) Degradable Diblock Copolymers", Macromolecules, Vol. 26, pgs. 888-894 (1993).

Ji-Dong Gu, David. T. Eberiel, Stephen. P. McCarthy and Richard. A. Gross, "Cellulose Acetate Biodegradability Upon Exposure To Simulated Aerobic Composting And Anaerobic Bioreactor Environments", J Environ. Polym. Degrad., 1(2), (1993).