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Online Publications

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2017-2016 2015-2014 | 2013-2012 | 2011-2010 | 2009-2006 | 2005-2002 | 2001-1994 | 1993 & Earlier

2017 -- 2016         

Mass Media

Gray, W. D. (2016). Academic Minute: Extreme Experts Exceed their Teachers, WAMC. Aug 11, 2016.

Research Papers -- published or in press

Gigerenzer, G. and Gray, W. D. (2017). A simple heuristic successfully used by humans, animals, and machines: The story of the raf and luftwaffe, hawks and ducks, dogs and frisbees, baseball outfielders and sidewinder missiles—oh my! Topics in Cognitive Science, 9(2):260–263. DOI 10.1111/tops.12269

Gray, W. D. (2017). Games-XP: Action Games as Experimental Paradigms for Cognitive Science. Topics in Cognitive Science, 9(2), pp. 289-307. DOI 10.1111/tops.12260

Keywords: Cognitive skill acquisition; Skilled performance; Extreme expertise; Expertise sampling; Longitudinal studies; Action games; Video games; Computer games; Verbal protocol analysis; Space Fortress; Tetris; StarCraft; Halo; Chess; Cohort analysis

Gray, W. D. (2017). Plateaus and Asymptotes: Spurious and Real Limits in Human Performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(1), pp. 59-67. DOI 10.1177/0963721416672904

Keywords: plateaus, asymptotes, expertise, performance, memory, spurious limits, cognitive skill acquisition

Gray, W. D. & Lindstedt, J. K. (2016-in Early View). Plateaus, Dips, and Leaps: Where to Look for Inventions and Discoveries during Skilled Performance. Cognitive Science, pp. 1-33. DOI 10.1111/cogs.12412

Keywords: expertise, performance, plateaus, dips, leaps, BreakOut, digit span, changepoint detection, extreme expertise, Space Fortress

Sibert, C., Gray, W. D., & Lindstedt, J. K. (2017). Interrogating a feature learning model to discover insights into the development of human expertise in a real-time, dynamic decision-making task. Topics in Cognitive Science., pp. 374-394. DOI 10.1111/tops.12225

Keywords: Tetris, cognitive skill, experts, expertise, strategies, methods, cross-entropy, reinforcement learning, perceptual learning, machine learning

Veksler, B. Z., Boyd, R., Myers, C. W., Gunzelmann, G., Neth, H. and Gray, W. D. (2017). Visual Working Memory Resources Are Best Characterized as Dynamic, Quantifiable Mnemonic Traces. Topics in Cognitive Science, 9(1), pp. 1-19. DOI 10.1111/tops.12248

Keywords: Visual working memory, Visual search, ACT-R, Eye tracking, Resource allocation

Conference Proceedings, Talks, and Posters

Gray, W. D. and Destefano, M. (2016). Searching not under the lightpole but where we dropped our keys: Using Changepoint Detection to shine the light on periods of strategy invention and change. Paper presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society,. Psychonomics Society.

Keywords: changepoint analysis, extreme expertise, cognitive skill acquisition, perceptual learning, Intuitive Changepoint Analysis Method, Space Fortress

Destefano, M. and Gray, W. D. (2016). Where Should Researchers Look for Strategy Discoveries during the Acquisition of Complex Task Performance? The Case of Space Fortress. In Anna Papafragou, Daniel Grodner, and John Trueswell, editors, Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Austin, TX. Cognitive Science Society.

Gray, W. D. (2016). Elements of Extreme Expertise. Presentation to the ONR 2016 Cognitive Science of Learning Program Review, Los Angeles, CA. Office of Naval Research.

Hope, R. M. and Gray, W. D. (2016). Using CRISP to model saccade parameters and error rates in the antisaccade task. VSS 2016: 16th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society. Vision Sciences Society.

Sangster, M-D D., Mendonca, D. J., and Gray, W. D. (2016). Big Data Meets Team Expertise in a Dynamic Task Environment. In Anna Papafragou, Daniel Grodner, and John Trueswell, editors, Proceedings of the 60th Annual Conference of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society. Santa Monica, CA Slides Presented at HFES 2016

Veksler, B. Z., Boyd, R., Myers, C., Gunzelmann, G., Neth, H., and Gray, W. D. (2016). The representation of visual working memory. In Reitter, D. and Ritter, F. E., editors, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, State College, PA. Penn State University.

Doctoral Thesis

Hope, R. M. (2016). Cognitive Control of Saccadic Behavior in the Antisaccade Task: A model of Voluntary and Involuntary Eye Movements. PhD Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

2015-2014         

Lindstedt, J. K. and Gray, W. D. (2015). MetaT: Tetris as an Experimental Paradigm for Cognitive Skills Research. Behavior Research Methods, 47(4), pp. 945-965.

Keywords: Tetris, Cognitive skills; Behavioral methods; Eye tracking methods; Experiment design; Cognitive tasks; Levels of analysis; Log files; Games

Video of Tetris Player using MetaT. Note that an interesting feature of MetaT is used beginning near the 30 s mark.

Gray, W. D. and Hills, T. (2014). Does cognition deteriorate with age or is it enhanced by experience? Topics in Cognitive Science, 6(1), pp. 2–4.

Doctoral Thesis

Ralph, J. (2014). Statistical Manipulation And Control Strategies Of The N-Back Task. PhD Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

Conference Proceedings – Refereed

Gray, W. D., Hope, R. M., Lindstedt, J. K., and Sangster, M-D. (2014). Gaze Transitions as Clues to Expert-Novice Strategy Differences in a Dynamic Video Game. ETVIS 2015 - First Workshop on Eye Tracking and Visualization. IEEE VIS.

Gittelson, L., Lindstedt, J. K., Sibert, C., and Gray, W. D. (2014). Comparing reinforcement learning in humans and artificial intelligence through tetris. In Bello, P., Guarini, M., McShane, M., and Scassellati, B., editors, Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Austin, TX. Cognitive Science Society.

Invited Talks

Gray, W. D. (2015). League-Stepping Habits as an Escape Route (Thru Plateaus, Dips, and Leaps) From Stable Suboptimal Performance: A Behavioral Marker Approach. Presentation to the ONR 2015 Cognitive Science of Learning Program Review, UC Santa Barbara. Santa Barbara, California.

Gray, W. D. (2014). Elements of extreme expertise: Searching for differences in microstrategies deployed by experts and novices. Plenary Presentation at the 12th Biannual Meeting of the German Cognitive Science Society, Universität Tübingen. Tübingen, Germany.

Keywords: Tetris

Gray, W. D. (2014). Elements of extreme expertise in cognitive skill: Studies of video gamers. Talk Presented at the Union College Psychology Department Speakers Series and Honors Colloquium, Schenectady, NY. Union College.

Other

Gray, W. D., Hope, R. H., Lindstedt, J. K., and Sangster, M-D. (2015). Expert and Novice Differences in Gaze Transitions during Play of a Dynamic Video Game. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 8(4), p. 273.

Hope, R. H. and Gray, W. D. (2015). A scanpath algorithm for dynamic regions of interest and complex task environments. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 8(4), p. 136.

Barry, K., Gray, W. D., and Schoelles, M. J. (2014). The 36th annual meeting of the cognitive science society. In Bello, P., Guarini, M., McShane, M., and Scassellati, B., editors, Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Austin, TX. Cognitive Science Society.

Gray, W. D., Perez, R., Lindstedt, J. K., Skinner, A., Johnson, R. R., Mayer, R. E., Adams, D., and Atkinson, R. (2014). Tetris as research paradigm: An approach to studying complex cognitive skills. In Bello, P., Guarini, M., McShane, M., and Scassellati, B., editors, Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Austin, TX. Cognitive Science Society.

Sibert, C., Lindstedt, J. K., and Gray, W. D. (2014). Tetris: Exploring human strategies via cross entropy reinforcement learning models. In Bello, P., Guarini, M., McShane, M., and Scassellati, B., editors, Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Austin, TX. Cognitive Science Society.

2013

Hope, R. M., Schoelles, M. J., and Gray, W. D. (2013). Simplifying the interaction between cognitive models and task environments with the JSON Network Interface. Behavior Research Methods, pp. 1–6.

Sims, C. R., Neth, H., Jacobs, R. A., and Gray, W. D. 2013). Melioration as rational choice: Sequential decision making in uncertain environments. Psychological Review, 120(1), 139-154.

Veksler, V. D., Gray, W. D., and Schoelles, M. J. (2013). Goal-proximity decision making. Cognitive Science, 37(4), 605-774.

Conference Proceedings – Refereed

Barry, K. P. and Gray, W. D. (2013). Forcing strategy uniformity with utility manipulation: A computational model. In West, R. and Stewart, T., editors, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Carleton University.

Hope, R. M. and Gray, W. D. (2013). Eye movement optimization in visual search. In Bello, P., Guarini, M., McShane, M., and Scassellati, B., editors, Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pages 609–614, Austin, TX. Cognitive Science Society.

Hope, R. M., Schoelles, M. J., and Gray, W. D. (2013). Connecting the world to ACT- R using JSON and TCP. In West, R. and Stewart, T., editors, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, pp. 1–2, Ottawa, Canada. Carleton University.

Lindstedt, J. K. and Gray, W. D. (2013). Extreme expertise: Exploring expert behavior in Tetris. In Knauff, M., Pauen, M., Sebanz, N., and Wachsmuth, I., editors, Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 912–917, Austin, TX. Cognitive Science Society.

Neth, H., Sims, C. R., and Gray, W. D. (2013). Rational task analysis: Eine methode zur erforschung adaptiver kognition. Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany.

Schoelles, M. J. and Gray, W. D. (2013). Speculations on model tracing for visual analytics. In West, R. and Stewart, T., editors, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, Ottawa, Canada. Carleton University.

Invited Talks

Gray, W. D. (2013). Human interactions in abstract visual spaces. In Dagstuhl Seminar on Interaction with Information for Visual Reasoning, Germany. Schloss Dagstuhl – Lebniz-Zentrum für Informatik.

Gray, W. D. (2013). Elements of extreme expertise in cognitive skill. Talk Presented at the Center for Cognitive Science. Albert-Ludwigs-Universit ̈at Freiburg, Germany.

Gray, W. D. (2013). Elements of extreme expertise in cognitive skill. In Taatgen, N., van Rijn, H., and Borst., J., editors, The European ACT-R Workshop, Groningen, The Netherlands. Rijsuniversiteit Groningen.

Gray, W. D. (2013). Elements of extreme expertise in cognitive skill. In Talk Presented at the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, CT.

Gray, W. D. (2013). Elements of extreme expertise in cognitive skill. In Talk Presented at the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, CT.

2012

Janssen, C. P., & Gray, W. D. (2012). When, what, and how much to reward in reinforcement learning based models of cognition. Cognitive Science, 36(2), 333–358.

Wang, Z., Hope, R. M., Wang, Z., Ji, Q., & Gray, W. D. (2012). Cross-subject workload classification with a hierarchical Bayes model. NeuroImage, 59(1), 64-69.

Conference Proceedings – Refereed

Gray, W. D., Kaber, D., Gil, G.-H., Kim, S.-H., Cao, S., Liu, Y., Gonzalez, C., Gunzelmann, G., and Gluck, K. (2012). Symposium on human performance modeling. In 12th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, Berlin, Germany.

John, B. E., Gray, W. D., and Patton, E. W. (2012). Tools for predicting the duration and variability of skilled performance without skilled performers. In 56th Annual Conference of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA. HFES.

Patton, E. W., Gray, W. D., and John, B. E. (2012). Automated CPM-GOMS modeling from human data. In 56th Annual Conference of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA. HFES.

Ralph, J., Gray, W. D., and Schoelles, M. J. (2012). Cognitive workload and the motor component of visual attention. In Miyake, N., Peebles, D., and Cooper, R. P., editors, Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 899–904. CSS, Austin, TX.

Schoelles, M. J. and Gray, W. D. (2012). Simpilot: An exploration of modeling a highly interactive task with delayed feedback in a multitasking environment. In 12th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, Berlin, Germany.

Invited Talks

Gray, W. D. (2012). The Cognitive Science of Natural Interaction or Why Suboptimal Performance Results when Human Systems Violate the Design Assumptions of Nature. In Talk Presented to the HFES Webinar series on 2012-09-24.

Gray, W. D., Lindstedt, J. K., Hope, R. M., and Destefano, M. (2012). An update on the whys and wherefores of Space Fortress 5 and the mysteries of Tetris. Talk Presented at University College London on 2012-03Mar-06, London, England. University College London.

Gray, W. D. and Ralph, J. (2012a). Contributions of body-bound & brain-bound resources, and control processes to cognitive workload. Talk Presented at University College London on 2012-03Mar-07, London, England. University College London.

Gray, W. D. and Ralph, J. (2012b). Contributions of body-bound & brain-bound resources, and control processes to cognitive workload. Talk Presented at Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung on 2012-03Mar-27, Berlin, Germany.

Gray, W. D. and Ralph, J. (2012c). Contributions of body-bound & brain-bound resources, and control processes to cognitive workload. Talk Presented at Central European University, Budapest on 2012-05May-07, Budapest, Hungary.

Gray, W. D. and Ralph, J. (2012d). Contributions of body-bound & brain-bound resources, and control processes to cognitive workload. Talk Presented at Technical University of Berlin on 2012-06Jun-13, Berlin, Germany.

Sheridan, T., Feary, M. S., Gray, W. D., Hancock, P., Pew, R., and Salvucci, D. (2012). Tools for predicting the duration and variability of skilled performance without skilled performers. Panel Presented at the 56th Annual Conference of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA. HFES.

2011

Myers, C. W., Gray, W. D., & Sims, C. R. (2011). The insistence of vision: Why do people look at a salient stimulus when it signals target absence? Visual Cognition. 19(9), 1122-1157.

Doctoral Thesis

Veksler, B. Z. (2011). Modeling the visual search process. PhD Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

Conference Proceedings – Refereed

Destefano, M., Lindstedt, J. K., & Gray, W. D. (2011). Use of complementary actions decreases with expertise. In L. Carlson, C. Hölscher & T. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2709-2014). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Keywords: Tetris, Epistemic Action

Hope, R. M., Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Ji, Q., & Gray, W. D. (2011). Workload Classification Across Subjects Using EEG. 54th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Schoelles, M. J., & Gray, W. D. (2011). Cognitive modeling as a tool for improving runway safety. Dayton, OH: 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (ISAP). Movie of ACT-R Taxiing a 737

Veksler, B. Z., & Gray, W. D. (2011). A Tale of Two Problems: Human Judgments of Visual Clusters and Data Collection via Mechanical Turk™ or the Laboratory. 54th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Wang, Z., Hope, R. M., Wang, Z., Ji, Q., & Gray, W. D. (2011). An EEG Workload Classifier for Multiple Subjects. 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC ’11). (pp. 6534-6537). Washington, DC: IEEE Press.

2010

Myers, C. W., & Gray, W. D. (2010). Visual scan adaptation during repeated visual search. Journal of Vision, 10(8).

Patton, E. W., & Gray, W. D. (2010). SANLab-CM: A tool for incorporating stochastic operations into activity network modeling. Behavior Research Methods, 42(3), 877-883.

Doctoral Thesis

Destefano, M. (2010). The Mechanics of Multitasking: The Choreography of Perception, Action, and Cognition over 7.05 Orders of Magnitude. PhD Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

Conference Proceedings – Refereed

Brudzinski, M. E., Sims, C. R., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2010). Visual simularity is ObViS. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 848-852). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Ralph, J., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2010). Squeezing the balloon: Analyzing the unpredictable effects of cognitive workload 53rd Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Invited Talks

Gray, W. D. (2010). The Shape of Things to Come: An Emerging Constellation of Interconnected Tools for Developing the Right Cognitive Model at the Right Scale, Keynote Addressed delivered to the Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation Conference (BRiMS 2010). Charleston, SC.

Gray, W. D. (2010). President's Forum: Human performance modeling–What every Human Factors Engineer should know 54th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. San Francisco: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Conference Panels, Posters, and Papers – Not Refereed

Gray, W. D. (2010). Reductionism, constructionism, networks, and cognitive science, Paper presented at a panel on NetCentric Systems at the Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation Conference (BRiMS 2010). Charleston, SC.

Gray, W. D. (2010). Space Fortress: A new old paradigm for modeling and studying immediate interactive behavior. Paper presented at the 17th Annual ACT-R Workshop.

2009

Doctoral Theses

Sims, C. R. (2009). Internal models of embodied dynamics: A computational theory of learning in routine interactive behavior. PhD Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

Veksler, V. D. (2009). Examining the goal-proximity decision mechanism: Maze-navigation, incidental learning, tic-tac-toe, and exploration of SecondLife virtual worlds. PhD Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

Invited Symposium

Liu, Y., Pew, R. W., Gray, W. D., Lee, J. D., Ellis, D., & Wu, C. (2009). One hundred years of Queuing theory: Implications for human factors engineering. Paper presented at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting - 2009. San Antonio, TX.

Conference Proceedings – Refereed

Connolly, T. J., Veksler, V. D., & Gray, W. D. (2009). Predicting interest: Another use of Latent Semantic Analysis. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Manchester, England.

Gray, W. D. (2009). The Cognitive Science of immediate interactive behavior or why milliseconds matter for reality-based interfaces. Paper presented at the Twenty-Seventh Annual SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Boston, MA. ***Winner of the best paper award for CHI 2009 Workshop, Challenges in Evaluating Usability and User Experience in Reality-Based Interaction***

Patton, E. W., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2009). SANLab-CM: The Stochastic Activity Network Laboratory for Cognitive Modeling (pp. 1654-1658). 53rd annual meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. San Antonio, TX: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Ralph, J., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2009). The Functional Resource Hypothesis as a basis for understanding cognitive workload in immediate interactive behavior (p. 404-408). 53rd Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Stipicevic, M. J., Veksler, V. D., & Gray, W. D. (2009). Computational models of human document keyword selection Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Manchester, England.

Veksler, Bella Z. (2009). Milliseconds matter but so do learning and heuristics Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Manchester, England.

Veksler, V. Daniel, Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2009). Goal-proximity decision making: Who needs reward anyway? In N. A. Taatgen & H. v. Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1264-1269). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Conference Posters and Papers – Not Refereed

Schoelles, M. J., & Gray, W. D. (2009). Interacting with the environment: A view from the CogWorks Laboratory Talk presented at the ACT-R Workshop at the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Veksler, Bella Z., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2009). Cost of information acquisition and evolving strategies. Poster presented at the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Veksler, V. Daniel, Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2009). Second Life as a simulation environment: Task variety and skill transfer. Poster presented at the Eighth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Manchester, England.

Veksler, V. Daniel, Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2009). A mechanism for decisions in the absence of prior reward. Talk presented at the ACT-R Workshop at the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Amsterdam.

2008

Altmann, E. M., & Gray, W. D. (2008). An integrated model of cognitive control in task switching. Psychological Review, 115(3), 602-639.

Gray, W. D. (2008). Cognitive architectures: Choreographing the dance of mental operations with the task environments. Human Factors, 50(3), 497-505.

Gray, W. D. (2008). Cognitive modeling for cognitive engineering. In R. Sun (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of computational psychology (pp. 565-588). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Neth, H., Khemlani, S. S., & Gray, W. D. (2008). Feedback design for the control of a dynamic multitasking system: Dissociating outcome feedback from control feedback. Human Factors, 50(4), 643-651.

Invited Symposium

Gray, W. D., Rosenbaum, D. A., Martin, B. J., Byrne, M. D., John, B. E., & Raschke, U. (2008). Models of motor control and performance. In W. D. Gray (Ed.), Invited Symposium Presented at the 52nd annual meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. New York: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Conference Proceedings – Refereed

Chen, J., Tong, Y., Gray, W., & Ji, Q. (2008). A robust 3D eye gaze tracking system using noise reduction. Proceedings of the 2008 symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications, (pp. 189-196). Savannah, Georgia.

Gray, W. D. (2008). The interactive routine as key construct in theories of interactive behavior. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), Publication-based Presentation at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 127). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Lindsey, R., Stipicevic, M., Veksler, V. D., & Gray, W. D. (2008). BLOSSOM: Best path length on a semantic self-organizing map. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 481-486). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Neth, H., & Müller, T. (2008). Thinking by doing and doing by thinking: a taxonomy of actions. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 993-998). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Schlimm, D., & Neth, H. (2008). Modeling ancient and modern arithmetic practices: Addition and multiplication with arabic and roman numerals. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2097-2102). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Sims, C. R., & Gray, W. D. (2008). Adaptation to embodied dynamics: evidence from Bayes’ ball. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 135-140). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Veksler, V. D., Govostes, R. Z., & Gray, W. D. (2008). Defining the dimensions of the human semantic space. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1282-1287). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Conference Posters and Papers – Not Refereed

Destefano, M., & Gray, W. D. (2008, July). Choreographing cognition, perception, and motor control over 7.03 orders of magnitude. Paper presented at the 13th Annual ACT-R Summer Workshop, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Destefano, M., & Gray, W. D. (2008). An integrated model of action video game play. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), Poster presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2016). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Gray, W. D. & Schoelles, M. J. with Neth, H. & Veksler, V. D. (2008). The Cognitive Tool Kit Project . . . enchancing technologz through cognitive science. Talk presented at the 2008-02-07 A-SpaceX Site Visit at Rensselaer Polytechnic Instittute

Janssen, C., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2008). How a modeler’s conception of rewards influences a model’s behavior: Investigating ACT-R 6’s utility learning mechanism. Paper presented at the 13th Annual ACT-R Workshop.

Janssen, C., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2008). Cognitive models of strategy shifts in interactive behavior. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), Poster presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1074). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Neth, H., Patton, E. W., Banas, S., Schoelles, M. J., & Gray, W. D. (2008). Integrating semantic and visual aspects of online information search. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), Poster presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2287). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Schoelles, M. J., Gray, W. D., & Neth, H. (2008). The Sudoku model: A dynamic decision maker. Paper presented at the 13th Annual ACT-R Workshop.

Schoelles, M. J., Neth, H., Dennis, A., & Gray, W. D. (2008). Manipulating Sudoku strategies. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), Poster presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2419). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Veksler, B. Z., Schoelles, M. J., & Gray, W. D. (2008). Issues in acquiring interactive routines. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love & K. McRae (Eds.), Poster presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1100). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

2007

Gray, W. D.(Ed.) (2007). Integrated models of cognitive systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gray, W. D. (2007). Composition and control of integrated cognitive systems. In W. D. Gray (Ed.), Integrated models of cognitive systems (pp. 3-12). New York: Oxford University Press.

Doctoral Thesis

Myers, C. W. (2007). Scan pattern adaptation during repeated visual search. PhD thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

Conference Proceedings (if links to downloads are missing, copies are available on request)

Destefano, M., & Gray, W. D. (2007). Use of complimentary action decreases with expertise. Poster presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Nashville, TN: Cognitive Science Society.

Lindsey, R., Veksler, V. D., Grintsvayg, A., & Gray, W. D. (2007). Be wary of what your computer reads: The effects of corpus selection on measuring semantic relatedness. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Ann Arbor, MI.

Myers, C. W., & Gray, W. D. (2007). Are eye movements involved in cued target recall from repeating spatial contexts? In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1515-1520). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Neth, H., Carlson, R. A., Gray, W. D., Kirlik, A., Kirsh, D., & Payne, S. J. (2007). Immediate interactive behavior: How embodied and embedded cognition uses and changes the world to achieve its goals. Symposium presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Nashville, TN: Cognitive Science Society.

Veksler, B. Z., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2007). From 1000 ms to 650 ms: Why interleaving, soft constraints, and milliseconds matter. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Ann Arbor, MI.

Veksler, B. Z., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2007). ProtoMatch: A tool for manipulating eye, mouse, and keystroke data. In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1878). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Veksler, V. D., & Gray, W. D. (2007). Mapping semantic relevancy of information displays. In ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2729-2734). NY: ACM Press.

Veksler, V. D., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2007). Categorization and reinforcement learning: State identificaiton in reinforcement learning and network reinforcement learning. In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 689-694). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Veksler, V. D., Grintsvayg, A., Lindsey, R., & Gray, W. D. (2007). A proxy for all your semantic needs. Poster published in the Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci2007, Nashville, TN.

2006

Gray, W. D., Sims, C. R., Fu, W.-T., & Schoelles, M. J. (2006). The soft constraints hypothesis: A rational analysis approach to resource allocation for interactive behavior. Psychological Review, 113(3) 461-482.

Gray, W. D. (2006). The emerging rapprochement between cognitive and ecological analyses. In A. Kirlik (Ed.), Adaptation in human-technology interaction (pp. 230-246). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gray, W. D., Neth, H., & Schoelles, M. J. (2006). The functional task environment. In A. Kramer, A. Kirlik & D. Wiegman (Eds.), Attention: From theory to practice (pp. 100-118). New York: Oxford University Press.

Fu, W.-T., & Gray, W. D. (2006). Suboptimal tradeoffs in information seeking. Cognitive Psychology, 52(3), 195-242.

Lee, B., Parr, C. S., Plaisant, C., Bederson, B. B., Veksler, V. D., Gray, W. D., & Kotfila, C. (2006). Visualizing networks with enhanced tree layouts: Can interaction tame complexity? IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 12(6), 1414-1426.

Liao, W., Zhang, W., Zhu, Z., Ji, Q., & Gray, W. D. (2006). Toward a decision-theoretic framework for affect recognition and user assistance. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64(9), 847-873.

Conference Proceedings

Neth, H., Khemlani, S. S., Oppermann, B., & Gray, W. D. (2006). Juggling multiple tasks: A rational analysis of multitasking inn a synthetic task environment, Proceedings of the 50th annual meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. San Francisco, CA: HFES.

Neth, H., Sims, C. R., & Gray, W. D. (2006). Melioration Dominates Maximization: Stable Suboptimal Performance Despite Global Feedback, Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 627-632).

Schoelles, M. J., Gray, W. D., Veksler, V. D., Gamard, S., & Grintsvayg, A. (2006, July). Cognitive modeling of web search. Paper presented at the 13th Annual ACT-R Workshop, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Schoelles, M. J., Neth, H., Myers, C. W., & Gray, W. D. (2006). Steps towards integrated models of cognitive systems: A levels-of-analysis approach to comparing human performance to model predictions in a complex task environment, Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 756-761).

2005

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Sims, C. R. (2005). Adapting to the task environment: Explorations in expected value. Cognitive Systems Research, 6(1), 27-40.

Conference Proceedings

Gray, W. D., & Veksler, V. D. (2005). The acquisition and asymmetric transfer of interactive routines. In B. G. Bara, L. Barsalou & M. Bucciarelli (Eds.), 27th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci2005 (pp. 809-814). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Gray, W. D., & Myers, C. W. (2005). From models to methods to models: Tools and techniques for using, developing, and analyzing cognitive human performance models, 49th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 1139). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Sims, C. R. (2005). Cognitive metrics profiling, 49th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 1144-1148). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Myers, C. W. (2005). Profile before optimizing: A cognitive metrics approach to workload analysis. In ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM Press.

Guhe, M., Liao, W., Zhu, Z., Ji, Q., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2005). Non-intrusive measurement of workload in real-time 49th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 1157-1161). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Myers, C. W. (2005). Computing the similarity of sequential behavior, 49th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 1140-1143). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Neth, H., Sims, C. R., & Gray, W. D. (2005). Melioration despite more information: The role of feedback frequency in stable suboptimal performance., 49th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 357–361). Orlando, FL.: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Neth, H., Gray, W. D., & Myers, C. W. (2005). Memory models of visual search: Searching in-the-head vs. in-the-world? Journal of Vision, 5(8), 417.

2004

Fu, W.-t., & Gray, W. D. (2004). Resolving the paradox of the active user: Stable suboptimal performance in interactive tasks. Cognitive Science, 28(6), 901-935.

Gray, W. D. (2004). In appreciation: Leo Joseph Postman. APS Observer, 17(10).

Gray, W. D., & Fu, W.-T. (2004). Soft constraints in interactive behavior: The case of ignoring perfect knowledge in-the-world for imperfect knowledge in-the-head. Cognitive Science, 28(3), 359-382.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Myers, C. W. (2004). Meeting Newell's other challenge: Cognitive architectures as the basis for cognitive engineering. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 26(5), 609-610.

Gray, W. D. (2004). Errors in interactive behavior. In W. S. Bainbridge (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 230-235): Berkshire Publishing Group.

Conference Proceedings

Gluck, K., & Gray, W. D. (2004). ACT-R as a unified architecture of cognition: A symposium in honor of John R. Anderson. In K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner & T. Regier (Eds.), 26th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci2004 (pp. 9). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publisher.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Myers, C. W. (2004). Strategy constancy amidst implementation differences: Interaction-intensive versus memory-intensive adaptations to information access in decision-making. In K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner & T. Regier (Eds.), 26th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci2004 (pp. 482-487). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publisher.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Sims, C. R. (2004). Learning to choose the most effective strategy: Explorations in expected value. In M. C. Lovett, C. D. Schunn, C. Lebiere & P. Munro (Eds.), 6th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling–ICCM2004 (pp. 112-117). Pittsburgh, PA.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Veksler, V. D. (2004). Simborgs: Towards the building of simulated human users for interactive systems design. In 48th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 362-366). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Gray, W. D., Veksler, V. D., & Fu, W.-T. (2004). Probing the paradox of the active user: Asymmetrical transfer may produce stable, suboptimal performance. Member poster presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci2004 (pp. 1564). Hillsdale, NJ.

Guhe, M., Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Ji, Q. (2004). Towards an affective cognitive architecture. In K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner & T. Regier (Eds.), 26th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci2004 (pp. 1565). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publisher.

Ji, Q., Gray, W. D., Guhe, M., & Schoelles, M. J. (2004). Towards an integrated cognitive architecture for modeling and recognizing user affect. Paper presented at the AAAI Spring Symposium on Emotion Modeling and Recognition, Stanford, CA.

Myers, C. W., Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2004). Workload is bad, except when its not: The case of avoiding attractive distractors. In K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner & T. Regier (Eds.), 26th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci2004 (pp. 993-998). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publisher.

Neth, H., Sims, C. R., Veksler, V. D., & Gray, W. D. (2004). You can't play straight TRACS and win: Memory updates in a dynamic task environment. In K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner & T. Regier (Eds.), 26th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, CogSci2004 (pp. 1017-1022). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publisher.

Sims, C. R., & Gray, W. D. (2004). Episodic versus semantic memory: An exploration of models of memory decay in the serial attention paradigm. In M. C. Lovett, C. D. Schunn, C. Lebiere & P. Munro (Eds.), 6th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling–ICCM2004 (pp. 279-284). Pittsburgh, PA.

2003

Byrne, M. D., & Gray, W. D. (2003). Returning Human Factors to an engineering discipline: Expanding the science base through a new generation of quantitative methods — Preface to the Special Section. Human Factors, 45(1), 1-4.

Gray, W. D., & Schoelles, M. J. (2003). The nature and timing of interruptions in a complex, cognitive task: Empirical data and computational cognitive models. In R. Alterman & D. Kirsch (Eds.), 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., Bringsjord, S. A., Burrows, K., & Colder, B. (2003). Sage: Five powerful ideas for studying and transforming the intellligence analyst's task environment, 47th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 1019-1023). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Gray, W. D. (2003). Cognitive factors in homeland defense: The role of human factors in the novel intelligence from massive data (NIMD) project, 47th Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 1017-1019). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Doctoral Thesis

Fu, W.-T. (2003). Adaptive planning in problem solving - cost-benefit tradeoffs in bounded rationality. PhD Thesis, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.

2002

Duric, Z., Gray, W. D., Heishman, R., Li, F., Rosenfeld, A., Schoelles, M. J., Schunn, C. D., & Wechsler, H. (2002). Integrating perceptual and cognitive modeling for adaptive and intelligent human-computer interaction. Proceedings of the IEEE, 90(7), 1272-1289.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Myers, C. W. (2002). Computational cognitive models ISO ecologically optimal strategies. In the Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society (pp. xx-yy). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors & Ergonomics Society.

Altmann, E. M., & Gray, W. D. (2002). Forgetting to remember: The functional relationship of decay and interference. Psychological Science, 13(1), 27-33.

Gray, W. D. (2002). Simulated task environments: The role of high-fidelity simulations, scaled worlds, synthetic environments, and microworlds in basic and applied cognitive research. Cognitive Science Quarterly 2(2), 205-227.

Schoelles, M. J. (2002). Simulating Human Users in Dynamic Environments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.

Schunn, C. D., & Gray, W. D. (2002). Introduction to the special issue on computational cognitive modeling. Cognitive Systems Research, 3(1), 1-3.

2001

Fu, W.-t. (2001). ACT-PRO: Action protocol tracer -- a tool for analyzing discrete action protocols. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 33(2), 149-158.

Gray, W. D., & Altmann, E. M. (2001). Cognitive modeling and human-computer interaction. In W. Karwowski (Ed.), International encyclopedia of ergonomics and human factors (Vol 1, pp. 387-391). New York: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

Gray, W. D., & Fu, W.-t. (2001). Ignoring perfect knowledge in-the-world for imperfect knowledge in-the-head: Implications of rational analysis for interface design. CHI Letters, 3(1), 112-119. Also in ACM CHI'01 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Schoelles, M. J., & Gray, W. D. (2001). Decomposing interactive behavior, In J. D. Moore & K. Stenning (Eds.), Twenty-Third Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 898-903). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schoelles, M. J., & Gray, W. D. (2001). Argus: A suite of tools for research in complex cognition. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 33(2), 130-140.

2000

Ehret, B. D., Gray, W. D., & Kirschenbaum, S. S. (2000). Contending with complexity: Developing and using a scaled world in applied cognitive research. Human Factors, 42(1), 8-23.

Gray, W. D. (2000). The nature and processing of errors in interactive behavior. Cognitive Science, 24(2), 205-248.

Gray, W. D., & Boehm-Davis, D. A. (2000). Milliseconds Matter: An introduction to microstrategies and to their use in describing and predicting interactive behavior. Journal of Experiment Psychology: Applied, 6(4), 322-335.

Gray, W. D., & Kirschenbaum, S. S. (2000). Analyzing a novel expertise: An unmarked road. In J. M. C. Schraagen, S. F. Chipman, & V. L. Shalin (Eds.), Cognitive task analysis (pp. 275-290). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Doctoral Thesis

Ehret, B. D. (2000). Learning where to look: The acquisition of location knowledge in display-based interaction. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering, 60(10-B), 5239.

Conferences

Altmann, E. M., & Gray, W. D. (2000). An integrated model of set shifting and maintenance. In N. Taatgen & J. Aasman (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 17-24). Veenendal, NL: Universal Press.

Altmann, E. M., & Gray, W. D. (2000). Managing attention by preparing to forget. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 44th Annual Meeting (pp. 152-155). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Fu, W.-t., & Gray, W. D. (2000). Memory versus Perceptual-Motor Tradeoffs in a Blocks World Task. Proceedings of the Twenty-second Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 154-159). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gray, W. D., & Fu, W.-t. (2000). The influence of source and cost of information access on correct and errorful interactive behavior. In L. R. Gleitman & A. K. Joshi (Eds.), Twenty-second Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 663-668). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, M. J., & Fu, W.-t. (2000). Modeling a continuous dynamic task. In N. Taatgen & J. Aasman (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 158-168). Veenendal, The Netherlands: Universal Press.

Kirschenbaum, S. S., & Gray, W. D. (2000). The Precis of Project Nemo, Phase 2: Levels of Expertise, Twenty-second Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 753-758). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schoelles, M. J., & Gray, W. D. (2000). Argus Prime: Modeling emergent microstrategies in a complex simulated task environment. In N. Taatgen & J. Aasman (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 260-270). Veenendal, NL: Universal Press.

Tutorial

Gray, W. D., & Boehm-Davis, D. A. (2000). Cognitive analysis of dynamic performance: Cognitive process analysis and modeling. Workshop conducted at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Diego, CA.

1999

Altmann, E. M. & Gray, W. D. (1999). Serial Attention as Strategic Memory. Twenty first annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 25-30). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gray, W. D., Palanque, P., & Paterno, F. (1999). Introduction to the Special Issue on: Interface Issues and Designs for Safety-critical Interactive Systems. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 6(4), 309-310.

Gray, W. D. (1999). Scaled worlds: Tractable, realistic, and engaging? Paper presented at the Scaled Worlds '99: Inaugural International Synthetic Task Development Conference, Athens, GA.

1998

Altmann, E.M., Gray, W.D. (1998). Pervasive Episodic Memory: Evidence from a Control-of-Attention Paradigm. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 42-47). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ehret, B. D., Kirschenbaum, S. S., & Gray, W. D. (1998). Contending with complexity: the development and use of scaled worlds as research tools, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42th Annual Meeting (pp. 254-257). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Ehret, B. D. (1998). Scaled worlds as research tools: A demonstration, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42th Annual Meeting (pp. 1157). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Gray, W. D., & Salzman, M. C. (1998). Damaged merchandise? A review of experiments that compare usability evaluation methods. Human-Computer Interaction, 13(3), 203-261

Schoelles, M. J., & Gray, W. D. (1998). Argus, A System for Varying Cognitive Workload. Paper presented at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42th Annual Meeting, Chicago.

1997

Gray, W. D. (1997, July/August). Who ya gonna call? You're on your own. IEEE Software, 14, 26-28.

Gray, W. D. (1997). A view of schema theory. [Review of the book: Schemas in problem solving.] Contemporary Psychology, 42(2), 158-159.

Gray, W. D., Young, R. M., & Kirschenbaum, S. S. (1997). Introduction to this Special Issue on Cognitive Architectures and Human-Computer Interaction. Human-Computer Interaction, 12(4), 301–309.

1996

Gray, W. D., & Ehret, B. E. (1996). Cognitive Science versus Cognitive Ergonomics: A dynamic tension or an inevitable schism? [Review of the book Expertise and technology: Cognition and human-computer cooperation]. Contemporary Psychology, 41(6), 592-539]

Kirschenbaum, S. S., Gray, W. D., & Young, R. M. (1996). Cognitive architectures & HCI. SIGCHI Bulletin, 28(2), 18-21.

Kirschenbaum, S. S., Gray, W. D., Ehret, B. D., & Miller, S. L. (1996). When using the tool interferes with doing the task. In M. J. Tauber (Ed.), Conference companion of the ACM CHI'96 Conference Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 203-204). New York: ACM Press.

1995

Gray, W. D. (April 1995). Discount or Disservice? Panel presentation at the CHIí95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Denver, CO.

Kirschenbaum, S. K., Gray, W. D., & Young, R. (April 1995). (Organizers). Cognitive Architectures and Human-Computer Interaction. Workshop conducted at the CHIí95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Denver, CO.

Tutorial

John, B. E., & Gray, W. D. (1995). GOMS Analysis for Parallel Activities. Tutorial presented at the ACM CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Vol. 2, pp. 395–396).

1993

Gray, W. D., John, B. E., & Atwood, M. E. (1993). Project Ernestine: Validating GOMS for predicting and explaining real-world task performance. Human Computer Interaction., 8(3), 237-309.

Gray, W. D., Sabnani, H., & Kirschenbaum, S. (1993). [Review of the book Human Error].International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39, 1056-1057.

Gray, W. D., Goldberg, N. C., & Byrnes, S. A. (1993). Novices and programming: Merely a difficult subject (why?) or a means to mastering metacognitive skills? [Review of the book Studying the Novice Programmer]. Journal of Educational Research on Computers., 9(1), 131-140.

1992

Gray, W. D., John, B. E., & Atwood, M. E. (1992). The précis of Project Ernestine or an overview of a validation of GOMS. In P. Bauersfeld, J. Bennett, & G. Lynch (Eds.), ACM CHI'92 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 307-312). New York: ACM Press.

1991 & Earlier

Gray, W. D., Corbett, A. T., & VanLehn, K. (1988). Planning and Implementation Errors in Algorithm Design, Eleventh Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 594-600). Montreal, Canada.

Gray, W. D., John, B. E., Stuart, R., Lawrence, D., & Atwood, M. E. (1990). GOMS Meets the Phone Company: Analytic Modeling Applied to Real-World Problems. In Diaper, D., Gilmore, D. J., Cockton, G., and Shackel, B., editors, INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, pages 29–34, Cambridge, UK. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North-Holland).

Gray, W. D., & Orasanu, J. (1987). Transfer of learning: Contemporary research and applications. In S. Cormier & J. Hagman (Eds.), Transfer of training (pp. 183–215). San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.

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