1) Review: We are looking at the transition from our modern past to the postmodern future:



Architecture at the 1939 World’s fair: rational linear order, top-down planning


Classic top-down AI

Rodney Brook’s subsumption architecture

Linear systems analysis

Chaos theory

Equilibrium ecology – static “climax community.”

Ecosystem as vivisystem – changing, dynamic.


2) Brooks and his bottom-up robots in film “Out of Control.”


3) Intro to chaos theory – population model, the logistic map, shows clear example of how complex behavior can arise from simple,

deterministic equations. See “Basic Concepts in Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos” if you missed the lecture and film.


4) Questions on Kelly ch 5-6


1)     pp. 69-70 Who came up with the Chameleon riddle, and why?

2)     Pp. 70-71 what answers were proposed for the riddle?

3)     Pp. 71-72 Compare real and idealized versions of the riddle.

4)     P. 72 What systems can use the chameleon riddle as an analogy? Explain.

5)     P. 73-74 What did Paul Ehrlich see as an analogy to the chameleon riddle in evolutionary biology?

6)     Pp. 74-75 How did Stewart Brand interpret “co-evolution?”

7)     Pp. 76-77 What issues arise in terms of stability and instability for co-evolution?

8)     Pp. 77-81 How did James Lovelock extend co-evolutionary systems beyond biology?

9)     Pp. 83-84 What is the Gaia hypothesis and how is it supported? Why is Gaia troubling? How did Lovelock back off his original assertion?

10)Pp. 85-86 How did research on co-evolutionary relations lead to a focus on the prisoners dilemma?

11)Pp. 86-87 How does tit-for-tat solve the prisoners dilemma?

12)Pp. 87-88 what are the implications of tit-for-tat?

13)Pp. 89-90 What other lessons have been learned playing co-evolutionary games on computers?

14)Pp. 91-93 What did Burgess mean by “equilibrium is dead?”

15)Pp. 94-95 Since ecosystems are not at equilibrium, how do they remain stable?

16)Pp. 96-99 Compare pro-climax and anti-climax views of ecosystems.

17)Pp. 108-110 What is wrong with vitalism? How does Kelly’s study of vivisystems avoid the vitalist pitfall?