Questions on Bødker et al

1) pp. 157 What two reasons do the authors give for the difficulty in acheiving user involvement in system development within an organization? Why were there questions about applying the Scandanavian model for participatory design to North America?

2) pp. 158 How might the history we read about numerical controlled machine tools (by David Noble) differ if the U.S. had used these "Computer Application" guidelines?

3) pp. 158-159 What are the challenges confronting cooperative design attempts?

4) p. 159 What historical elements lead to the first experiments in worker participation in the 1970s? p. 160 What What were the advantages and disadvantages of these initial attempts?

5) pp. 160 How did the "second generation" of attempts in the 1980s address these eariler failings?

6) p. 161 What theoretical framework emerged as a result of the second generation attempts?

7) pp. 161-162 Why was the National Labour Inspection Service ("AT") chosen for case study? What are the goals of the study?

8) pp. 162-164 What is the relation between the four activities planned for the first part of the AT project, and the goals of the study?

9) pp. 166-167 What are organizational games? Describe their initial development in the UTOPIA project, and why they are used for cooperative design.

10) pp. 168-169 What is Mock-up design? Why are they used in the cooperative design approach?

11) pp. 170-171 What is cooperative prototyping? Why is it used in the cooperative design approach?

12) pp. 172-173 Overall, what are the obstacles to participatory design, and what kinds of solutions do the authors propose?