Glossary for some terms in STS philosophy
Ceteris paribus: Latin phrase, usually translated as "all other things being equal." Important for comparing theories with their empirical predictions; the prediction is only good if you can rule out any extraneous influences (dust clouds hiding a planet, etc.). Lakatos notes that since you can never prove that you have accounted for all possible influences, "theories with a ceteris paribus clause have no empirical basis" [for certitude].
Modus tollens: Latin for "mode that denies." Lakatos describes Popper's fallsifiability as "the arrow of the modus tollens."
Corroborating evidence is evidence that tends to support a proposition that is already supported by some evidence.
Verisimilitude: Popper's term for "truth content" -- his attempt to articulate how one false theory could be closer to the truth than another false theory.