What is Science and Technology Studies (STS)?
2) History of STS:
a. pre-20th century views: science
and tech allows appreciation of God's Glory, violation of God's law, increased
revolt against church and state, etc. Positivism: science = Truth.
b. post WWI: George Sarton and founding of ISIS
c. Merton: science has normative
structure (universalism, communism, disinterestedness, organized scepticism)
science has reward system (eponomy, honorific prizes, historical priority). Other founders of Social Studies of
Knowledge (SSK): Fleck, Hessen, Mannheim.
d. Popper: Criterion for scientific status is falsifiability.
Science consists of short revolutions between paradigms, followed by "normal
science" within a paradigm.
There is no research without puzzles, but puzzles can be reinterpreted as need for new paradigm.
f. 1960s: Impact policy studies, biased science critique, biased technology critique: eg Mumford, Carlson, Commoner, etc.
g. 1970-80s: Critique of science-as-usual: Science itself as authoritarian power (e.g. Merchant, Keller). Relativist critique of science (Feyerabend, Collins), Constructivist (Knorr-Cetina, Latour, Bloor). SCOT, ANT.