comics research bibliography: Comics and Education

Based on the comics research bibliography, copyright 2002 by John Bullough and Michael Rhode.

[Unknown.] 1911.
Make comics educational.
Survey (15 Apr):103.

[Unknown.] 1948.
Code for comics.
School Life 31(Nov 12).

[Unknown.] 1948.
Negro Heroes: A new comics publication. [Black comics].
School and Society 67(Jul 19):457.

[Unknown.] 1983.
Education: Bulletin board [comics libraries].
Christian Science Monitor (Jan 3):17.

[Unknown.] 1984.
Language everywhere: Arts [comics in learning].
Live Wire 1(1-3; Aug-Dec).

[Unknown.] 1992.
Give ya two Jack Rubys for a School Book Depository [Eclipse Comics].

[Unknown.] 1994.
More than just an aquarium [educational comic books].
Science Activities 31(3; Fall):40.

[Unknown.] 1995.
Outliers [using comics in AIDS education].
Modern Healthcare 25(12):72.

[Unknown.] 1996.
Role playing [Omega 7 creator speaks at school].
Kansas City Star (Feb 15).

[Unknown.] 1996.
W.C. Middle School Students Enjoy Using 'Comics In Action.'
Fremont [MI] Times-Indicator (Nov 20):6.

[Unknown.] 1997.
Educational comic books [about conservation].
Parks and Recreation 32(4; Apr):28-30.

Adler-Kassner, Linda. 1995.
"Why won't you just read it?": Comic books and community in the 1950s.
78th Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (Aug), Washington, DC.

Aquesolo Vegas, J. and P. I.-G. Sanchez. 1996.
Sport in Comic Strips: A Documentary Sample.
In International Society for the History of Physical Education and Sports: Games of the World - The World of Games, Volume 2; The World of Games: Political, Social and Educational Aspects (Pfister, G., T. Niewerth and A. Gounot, eds.).

Arlin, M. and G. Roth. 1978.
Pupils' use of time while reading comics and books.
American Education Research Journal 15(2):201-216.

Ballassone, Mary Lou, Sharon Baker, Mary R. Gillmore, Diane Morrison and Deborah Dickstein. 1993.
Interventions to decrease the risk of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases among high-risk heterosexual adolescents [including educational comics].
Children and Youth Services Review 15(6):475-488.

Barron, Daniel D. 1991.
Zap! Pow! Wham! Comics, graphic novels and education.
School Library Media Activities Monthly 8(3; Nov):48-50.

Barron, Daniel D. 1993.
Less is more? Minimalist possibilities for teachers and school library media specialists, part 1 [comics in the library].
School Library Media Activities Monthly 10(3):49-50.

Bonfadelli, H. 1989.
Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign [in German].
Sozial- und Praventivmedizin 34 (3): 124-30

Brannon, BR and DA Wagstaff. 1983.
Skin cancer/melanoma public and professional education in Hawaii: an integrated approach to technology transfer [including educational comic books].
Progress in Clinical & Biological Research (120): 497-508

Brennan, T. Casey. 1981.
Children may learn from smoking by seeing it in comics.
Smoke Signals (January)

Broersma, David. 1994.
Do chickens have lips? Conversational implicature in the ESL classroom [using comics to teach English].
8th Annual Meeting of the International Conference on Pragmatics and Language Learning (Feb), Urbana, IL.

Brown, Adrian. 1999.
Redirected Male [the use of comics in drugs health education].
Sequential Tart (October):

Brown, JB, A Beck, M Boles and P Barrett. 1999.
Practical methods to increase use of advance medical directives [by using a cartoon-illustrated educational pamphlet].
Journal of General Internal Medicine 14 (1; Jan): 21-6

Bruggeman, Lora. 1997.
Zap! Whoosh! Kerplow [graphic novels in the school library]!
School Library Journal 43(1; Jan):22-27.

Carter, Henry A. 1988.
Chemistry in the comics, part 1: A survey of the comic book literature.
Journal of Chemical Education 65(12):1029-1035.

Carter, Henry A. 1989.
Chemistry in the comics, part 3: The acidity of paper.
Journal of Chemical Education 66(11):883-886.

Caywood, Carolyn. 1994.
Seduction of the innocent [Wertham, comics and violence].
School Library Journal 40(7; Jul):48.

Chen, PC and HC Sim. 1986.
The development of culture-specific health education packages to increase case-finding of leprosy in Sarawak [using cartoon tape-slides and cartoon story books].
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health 17 (3; Sep): 427-32

Cohan, M. 1975.
Comic books in the classroom.
Social Education 39(5):324-325.

Davis, Jim. 1998.
Garfield's Lockerful o' Laughs School Year Calendar.
Kansas City: Andrews & McMeel

Dawson, C and K Hartfield. 1996.
Developing a cost-effective media campaign addressing unprotected anal sex among gay men [Stella Seattle comic strip].
AIDS Education & Prevention 8 (4; Aug): 285-93

Dixon, B. 1975.
Cartoon comics.
Forum for the Discussion of New Trends in Education 17(2):65-66.

Dorrell, Larry D. 1987.
Why comic books?
School Library Journal 34(3):30-32.

Dorrell, Larry D. and Carey T. Southall. 1982.
Captain America: A hero for education?
Clearing House 55(9):397-399.

Dorrell, Larry D. and Ed Carroll. 1981.
Spider-Man at the library.
School Library Journal 27(10):17-19.

Dorrell, Larry D.; Curtis, Dan B.; Rampal, Kuldip R. 1995.
Book-Worms Without Books? Students Reading Comic Books in the School House.
Journal of Popular Culture 29(2):223.

Dyson, A. H. 1996.
Cultural constellations and childhood identities: On Greek gods, cartoon heroes and the social lives of schoolchildren.
Harvard Educational Review 66(3):471.

Eisner, Will. 1974.
Comic books in the library.
School Library Journal 21(2):75-79.

Engstrom, E. 1994.
Learning by viewing: Cartoons as foreign language learning material for children.
Journal of the Educational Television Association 20(2):93.

Evian, CR, CB Ijsselmuiden, GN Padayachee, and HS Hurwitz. 1990.
Qualitative evaluation of an AIDS health education [cartoon] poster. A rapid assessment method for health education materials.
South African Medical Journal 78 (9; Nov 3): 517-20

Facinoli, Dave. 1999.
A nostalgic look back at 'Schoolhouse Rock' [live theater based on animated television shorts].
Northern Virginia Sun Weekly (July 15): 14

Farhi, Paul. 1998.
Flunking the ratings test: CBS dumps 'educational' children's shows [animation].
Washington Post (Jan 9):A1, A16.

Fletcher, Dani. 2000.
The "Truth" Is In Here: Project: Generation and Public Service [education al manga].
Sequential Tart 3 (9; September):

Flipse, Robyn. 1990.
Learning through laughter
Chicago: American Dietetic Association.

Fohrman, P. 1993.
Using self-access materials with pupils having reading problems [comics in education].
English Teachers' Journal: Israel (46):66-69.

Francis, Deborah. 1997.
Marvel Universe [review of book by P. Sanderson].
School Library Journal 43(4; Apr):170.

Furtwangler, Tom. 1998.
Celia Learns/Celia Aprende Comic Book Feild Test Results.
Seattle: University of Washington Novela Health Education

Garbarino, J. 1987.
Children's response to a sexual abuse prevention program: a study of the Spiderman comic [educational].
Child Abuse & Neglect 11 (1): 143-8

Gibson, Mel. 2000.
Creating New Audiences, Part Two: Working in Schools.
Sequential Tart 3 (7; July):

Gillert, Douglas J. 1999.
DoD tackles problem of land mines in Kosovo [Superman educational comic].
[Military District of Washington] Pentagram (August 6): 5

Gillmore, M. R. et al. 1992.
The process and pitfalls of developing a culturally relevant curriculum to reduce AIDS among sexually active teenagers [including comics].
73rd Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Apr), San Francisco, CA.

Gillmore, MR, DM Morrison, CA Richey, ML Balassone, L Gutierrez and M. Farris. 1997.
Effects of a skill-based intervention to encourage condom use among high risk heterosexually active adolescents [using educational comic books].
AIDS Education & Prevention 9(1 Supp; February ): 22-43

Gladding, Samuel T. and Wesley D. Hood. 1974.
Five cents - please [counseling and Peanuts' Lucy].
School Counselor 22(1):40-43.

Gower, D. L. 1995.
Health-related content in daily newspaper comic strips: A content analysis with implications for health education.
Education 116(1):37.

Greer, S. 1973.
Reading in the secondary school [reading and comics].
Reading Quarterly 6(3):69-98.

Gross, Milt. 1939.
I Won't Say A Word About - William Faulkner's Novel "The Wild Palms" [silent comic strip book review].
Ken (April 6 ): 61.
(online at

Grosvenor, Melville Bell. 1963.
Walt Disney: Genius of laughter and learning [editorial].
National Geographic (August): 157

Gustafson, D. 1979.
Cartooning for a school newspaper.
Quill and Scroll 54(1):4-6.

Hallau, M. G. 1982.
Sharing and learning in language arts [using comics].
Perspectives for Teachers of the Hearing Impaired 1(2):2-4.

Hallenbeck, P. N. 1976.
Remediating with comic strips.
Journal of Learning Disabilities 9(1):11-15.

Harper, J., W. Schamel and B. Haverkamp. 1996.
'The Alternative of Williamsburg:' A British Cartoon on Colonial American Violence.
Social Education 60(4):231.

Heger, Kenneth W. 1997.
Rich foreign relations ore: The Department of State office files [Records of 1950s program to create educational comics].
The Record [National Archives & Records Administration] 4 (2; Nov):14-16.

Heitzmann, Ray. 1996
"The Power of Political Cartoons in a Presidential Year"
History Matters!, National Council for History Education, September,
(WWW Document URL: Date viewed: May26, 2000)

Heitzmann, Ray. 2000
"Extra! Extra! For Laughing Out Loud"
NEA Today Online, National Education Association, April 2000
(WWW Document URL: http://www2.alcala/es/asi/stereo/hays/htm Date viewed: May26, 2000)

Hexel, Konrad & Laszlo Harsanyi. 1976.
Herzliche Richtlinien: kardiologische Tips fur den Praktiker [German electrocardiography educational comic].
Wien : Maudrich.

Hindle, A. 1971.
The literature under the desk [comics].
English in Education 5(1):40-47.

Hoff, Gary R. 1982.
The visual narrative: Kids, comic books and creativity.
Art Education 35(2):20-23.

Hoff, Syd. 1976.
Editorial and Political Cartooning: From Earliest Times to the Present.
Stravon Educational

Hogan, Wayne. 1994.
The birth of a cartoon.
School Arts 93(7):37.

Horwitz, Jane. 2000.
'Blue's Clues': Nice Doggy! Touring Show Brings Preschool TV Hit to Life [theater based on animated tv show].
Washington Post (March 7): C1

Horwitz, Jane. 2000.
'Blue's Clues': Nice Doggy!: Touring Show Brings Preschool TV Hit to Life [theater show based on animated tv series].
Washington Post (March 7): C1

Hughes, John. 1998.
New Fed comic book tackles trade [educational comics].
Associated Press (April 4).

Jardel, Jean-Pierre. 1992.
La bande dessinee 'antillaise' comme moyen de communication, d'information et d'education [French Caribbean comic strips; in French].
Etudes Creoles 15(2):126-137.

Katz, Montana, Veronica Vieland and Nicole Hollander (illus.). 1993.
Get Smart! What You Should Know (But Won't Learn in Class) About Sexual Harassment and Sex Discrimination, 2nd edition.
Feminist Press.

Kraus, Amanda. 2000.
Able to leap tall ethical dilemmas in a single bound [Newseum educational comic book "Chip Tracer"].
Museum News (March / April): 9-10

Krulik, Nancy E. 2000.
Sabrina the Teenage Witch Salem's Tails #12: Rulin' the School [children's novelization based on Archie tv series].
Minstrel Books

Lamb, Chris. 1988.
Doonesbury and the limits of satire.
71st Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (Jul), Portland, OR.

Larimore, Granville W. & Lucille Dee Rubin. 1969. Health Education [WWII cartoonists].
in Hoffe, Ebbe (ed). Preventive Medicine in World War II: Vol. IX Special Fields. Washington: Office of the Surgeon General.

Levenson, PM, JR Morrow and P Smith. 1984.
Instructional design strategies for developing an interactive video educational program for pregnant teens: a pilot study [includes animation preferences].
Patient Education & Counseling 6 (4): 149-54

Lim Cheng Tju. 2000.
More Moments of Anguish? The Critical Use of Political Cartoons in the Teaching of Singapore's History.
Teaching and Learning (January): 41-48

Lockwood, G.H. n.d. [1914]
Briggs - The Sky-Rocket [Clare Briggs celebration with work by Penny Ross, Winsor McCay, Dean Cornwell, Sid Smith].
Kalamazoo, Michigan: Lockwood Art School

Los Angeles Daily News. 2000.
Hot 'Powerpuffs' Born in School [animation].
Arizona Republic (March 29)

MacDonald, Suzanne et al. 1993.
Qualititative analysis of a synthetic culture: A methodological inquiry [analyzing comic strip culture].
Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Educational Research Association (Oct), Chicago, IL.

McCormick, Cynthia & Rebecca Mazur. 1998.
Christian tracts lead Barnstable to set guidelines: The school system is trying to govern outside materials handed out by students [religious comic books].
Cape Cod Times (August 5).

McDermott, TJ. 1989.
Cartooning: a humorous approach to medical and health education.
Journal of Biocommunication 16 (4): 20-7

Merrison, Tim. 1990.
Comics and Magazines [production of].
Garrett Educational Corp.

Merry, R. 1994.
Comics - motivator or menace?
Language & Learning (9/10):6.

Miner, M. E. 1969.
Charlie Brown goes to school.
English Journal 59(8):1183-1185.

Mitchell, C. and J. Reid-Walsh. 1995.
And I want to thank you Barbie: Barbie as a site for cultural interrogation [Barbie comics].
Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies 17(2):143-155.

Moll, JM. 1986.
Doctor-patient communication in rheumatology: studies of visual and verbal perception using educational booklets and other graphic material.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 45 (3; March): 198-209

Mosher, Mike. 1996.
On teaching kids comics.
School Arts 96(4; Dec):16.

Neugebauer, R, GA Wasserman, PW Fisher, J Kline, PA Geller and LS Miller. 1999.
Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of cardinal posttraumatic stress symptoms in school-age children.
American Journal of Public Health 89 (5: May): 758-61

Newhouse, Janice Harayda. 1990.
Classic comics return after 18 years away from school [Classics Illustrated].
Albany Times Union (Aug 31).

Newman, Isadore et al. 1994.
Qualitative analysis of comic strip culture: A methodological inquiry.
17th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Educational Research Association (Feb), Sarasota, FL.

Noyes, Harry. 1999.
Book will answer TRICARE questions [educational medical comic book].
The Mercury [U.S. Army Medical Department] (March): 1

Noyes, Harry. 1999.
Comics illustrate Tricare processes [educational comics for Defense Department health care system].
Pentagram (March 5): 15

Nyberg, Amy K. 1991.
Conflicting advice: Parents, the popular press and the comic book controversy, 1948-1954.
74th Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (Aug), Boston, MA.

O'Donnell, Linn. 1998.
Learning can be dumb [letter on Beakman and Jax's You Can].
Washington Post (Jan 10):A17.

Pai, Anant. 1995.
Comics as a Vehicle of Education and Culture.
Indian Horizons 44(2):107.

Pasquali, EA. 1990.
Learning to laugh: humor as therapy.
Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services 28 (3; March): 31-5

Pease, RA. 1991.
Cartoon humor in nursing education.
Nursing Outlook 39 (6; November-December): 262-7

Perry, CL, RM Mullis and MC Maile. 1985.
Modifying the eating behavior of young children [using cartoon character role models].
Journal of School Health 55 (10; Dec): 399-402

Phillips, CJ and C. Komkeaw (illustrator). 1992.
The Best Tobacco Cartoons of All Time [anti-smoking education].
Grand National Press

Prutzman, P. 1994.
Creative conflict resolution [using comics].
Learning 22(7):47-49.

Putnam, GL and KL Yanagisako. 1982. Skin cancer comic book: evaluation of a public educational vehicle.
Cancer Detection & Prevention 5 (3): 349-56

Putnam, GL and KL Yanagisako. 1985.
Skin cancer comic book: evaluation of a public educational vehicle.
Journal of Audiovisual Media in Medicine 8 (1; January): 22-5

Radford, Bill. 2000.
The Comic Fan: New company learns from the past [CrossGen Comics and Mark Alessi].
Colorado Springs Gazette (March 19)

Renaud, L, M. Caron-Bouchard and G. Sacks-Silver. 1990.
Yes, I'm quitting: a scripto-visual [i.e. comic strips] tool on anti-smoking for functionally illiterate women. Problems and educational research [in French].
Hygie 9 (1; March): 16-21

Reynolds, Eric. 1999.
Miscellanous news: Rock, Rock, Rock 'n' Roll High School [from Cosmic Comics]; Mirage folds comics line; DC gives credit to retailers; No end to paper crunch in sight; Mason, Ulm leave Malibu; Underground Manga from FBI; Rick Geary wins Reuben Award; STV acquires competitor; Founder of Cartoon Art Museum retires; Wizards cut off Heroes World; Bongo Halloween Special.
Comics Journal (179; August): 24-25

Richler, Mordecai. 1986.
1944: The year I learned to love a German.
New York Times (Feb 2).

Rifas, Leonard. 1988.
Educational Comics: A Message in a Bubble.
Print XLII (VI, Nov-Dec)

Rifas, Leonard. 1988.
Educational comics: a message in a bubble.
Print 42(Nov/Dec):145-57.

Rifas, Leonard. 1991.
AIDS Educational Comics.
Reference Services Review 19(2):81.

Russell, S. 1988.
Words that Pop! [Onomatopoeia in comics].
Learning 16(9):81.

Sartore, Richard L. 1994.
Cartoon poetry: An approach to learning language.
Clearing House 68(1):31.

Sawicki, Leo F. 1989.
Creating an educational comic book.
Etc. 46(Fall):248-9.

Schwarz, J. H. 1984.
The picture book and aesthetic-environmental education [comics and reading].
'Illustrator as Storyteller' Conference (Oct), Chicago, IL.

Sharkey, Betsy. 1996.
Laugh and learn ['Life With Louie' animated TV series].
Mediaweek 6(Nov 18):17.

Sherman, Gale; Ammon, Bette. 1993.
Beyond Superman: The Boom in Trade Comics.
School Library Journal 39(5; May):34.

Silverman, N. P. 1979.
How can we be learning English when we're having so much fun [using comics in teaching English]?
69th Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English (Nov), San Francisco, CA.

Simon, Scott. 1995.
[interview of high school editorial cartoonist Dan Mauldin].
National Public Radio's Weekend Edition Saturday (October 28)

Smith, Nancy R. 1985.
Copying and artistic behaviors: Children and comic strips.
Studies in Art Education 26(3):147-156.

Snow, Mike. 1995.
Educational comics: Apollo 12.
Ad Astra 7(Jan/Feb):42-3.

Sones, W. W. D. 1947.
Comic books are going to school
Progressive Education 24: 208.

Sprafkin, J, KD Gadow and P Grayson. 1987.
Effects of viewing aggressive cartoons on the behavior of learning disabled children [animation].
Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 28 (3; May): 387-98

Sprafkin, J, KD Gadow and P Grayson. 1988.
Effects of cartoons on emotionally disturbed children's social behavior in school settings.
Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 29 (1; Jan): 91-9

Stark, B. 1976.
"Meanwhile..." A look at comic books at Illinois School for the Deaf.
American Annals of the Deaf 121(5):470-477.

Starkey, Ronald. 1995.
Applications and analogies: Resonance analogy using cartoon characters.
Journal of Chemical Education 72(6):542.

Stevens, John D. 1976.
'Color' in the comic strips: Racial stereotyping trends in black and in white newspapers.
59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism (Jul/Aug), College Park, MD.

Suwono, F. 1993.
A graphical user-interface development tool for intelligent computer-assisted instruction systems [using animation].
Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School.

Swift and Co. 1942.
Eat Right To Work and Win [16 page educational booklet featuring King Features characters].
U.S. Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services.

Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M.; Singh, Mono M. 1994.
Microscale Chemistry in the Comics.
Journal of Chemical Education 71(6; Jun):A151.

Takahashi, Corey. 1999.
Monster madness: Pokemon's taking over schools, shops, and the silver screen - and not everyone is happy about it.
Entertainment Weekly (November 12): 10-11

Takashima, Hideyuki. 1987.
Acculturation and second language learning: Use of comics to measure the degree of acculturation.
IRAL 25(1; Feb):25-40.

Tayyab, S. 1994.
Biochemical education in leisure [using comics].
Biochemical Education 22(1):21-23.

Thomas, Roy. 1999.
"Draw for Comic Books! Learn and Earn in Your Spare Time - At Home!": When Joe Kubert and Norman Maurer taught comics drawing by mail!
Alter Ego 2(3; Winter): 8-13

Truran Rothwell, Jennifer.
Politics and media: Teaching with cartoons.
Social Education 60(6):326.

Ujiie, Joanne; Krashen, Stephen D. 1996.
Comic Book Reading, Reading Enjoyment, and Pleasure Reading Among Middle Class and Chapter I Middle School Students.
Reading Improvement 33(1):51.

Unknown. 1994.
SA AIDS comic "Roxy" [South African educational comic book].
Nursing RSA 9(10; October): 4

Unknown. 1999.
Book has Tricare answers ['The Provider', educational comic book on Army medical system].
[Army Medical Department] Mercury (October): 6

Unknown. 1981.
Focus: Comic Books
Social Education 45(5):304

Unknown. 1993.
Educational videos [by Morrie Turner].
Editor and Publisher (July 24): 32

Von Bauer. 1944.
Learning to live with others [illustrated by Wyncie king].
New York: DC Heath.

Warburton, T. and M. Saunders. 1996.
Representing teachers' professional culture through cartoons.
British Journal of Educational Studies 44(3):307.

Wax, Emily. 2000.
School beckoning, girls 'power' up: Superhero cartoon fuels demand for fashionable supplies [Powerpuff Girls animated tv show marketing].
Washington Post (August 20): C1, 4

Weeks, Linton. 1998.
'Kudzu' on stage: Learning to drawl
Washington Post (March 8): G1-G8.

Wells, JA. 1994.
Readability of HIV/AIDS educational materials: the role of the medium of communication, target audience, and producer characteristics [comic books].
Patient Education & Counseling 24(3; December): 249-259

Wells, James A. 1994.
Readability of HIV/AIDS educational materials: The role of the medium of communication, target audience, and producer characteristics [HIV/AIDS educational comic books].
Patient Education and Counseling 24(3; Dec):249-259.

Williams, Bryan L. and Betty Hubbard. 1994.
Teaching theory through cartoons.
Journal of Health Education 25(3):179.

Williams, Pat. 1987.
The Adult Education Amendment of 1987 [converting weapons manuals to comic books].
Congressional Record (Mar 30):E1173-E1174.

Wilson, Carol Ann. 1997.
The Iliad and the Odyssey [review; comic by M. Williams].
School Library Journal 43(5; May):126.

Wolf, W. A. 1975.
Chem Ed Compacts [using comics in teaching chemistry].
Journal of Chemical Education 52(10):654.

Wurman, Richard Saul & Loring Leifer. 1992.
Follow The Yellow Brick Road: Learning To Give, Take, and Use Instructions [illustrated by Ed Koren & Larry Gonick].
New York: Bantam Books.

Zorbaugh, H. W. (issue editor). 1944.
The comics as an educational medium
Journal of Educational Sociology 18: 196.